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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Soil Definition (Engineering)

– “refers to all unconsolidated material in the earth’s crust, all material above the bedrock”

mineral particles (gravel, sand, silt, clay) organic material (top soil, marshes)

Aggregates

mineral particles of a soil specifically, granular soil group

gravel, sand, silt

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete Aggregates Granular Soil Group (Aggregates)

Physical weathering

action of frost, water, wind, glaciers, plant/animals particles transported by wind, water, ice soils formed are called granular soil type • “grains are similar to the original bedrock”

Larger grain sizes than clays Particles tend to be more or less spheres/cubes Bound water is small compared to overall mass

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Granular Soil Group (Aggregates)

ability to achieve greater densities

well graded granular material

increased soil strength lower permeability reduced future settlement

These improvements dictate the use of aggregates in pavement layers where wheel loads are greater

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

In combination with asphalt cement or portland cement to form asphalt concrete or cement concrete respectively

In subbases and bases of a roadway structure

drainage structures concrete blocks

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Types of Aggregates Basic properties of these aggregates Tests used to evaluate these properties

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates Aggregate Sources

natural sand or gravel deposits * crushed rock * slag and mine refuse rubble and refuse artificial and processed materials pulverized concrete and asphalt pavements other recycled and waste materials

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Natural sand and gravel deposits

sand and gravel pits

sand and gravel soils that have been naturally sorted to eliminate most of the silt or clay sizes then deposited in:

glacier formations (eskers, outwash plains) river deposits beaches of current and previous lakes and seas

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete Aggregates Sand / Gravel Pit Development

– Stripping of topsoil, vegetation… from surface – Excavation of material

material is loose - front end loaders

Crushing of the material

larger size aggregate is broke down to desired size crushed gravel is considered high quality aggregate washing of aggregate cleans dust removes silt/clay

Type of material depends on bedrock source

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Crushed Rock

– “Type of aggregates produced from quarries depends on the type of bedrock”

Classes of Rocks

Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates Crushed Rock

Igneous Rocks

Original bedrock formed from the cooling of molten material

Coarse grained igneous rock (granite) cooled slowly Fine grained igneous rocks (basalt) cooled rapidly

Sedimentary Rocks

Solidification of chemical or mineral sediments deposited under ancient seas

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Layered since original material was deposited in this manner

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates Crushed Rock

Sedimentary Rocks

Limestone Dolomite Shale Sandstone Chert Conglomerate

Calcium Carbonate

Calcium/Magnesium Carbonate

Clay Quartz Fine sand Gravel

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates Crushed Rock

Metamorphic Rocks

Igneous or Sedimentary rocks that have been metamorphosed due to intense heat and

pressure

Slate Marble Quartzite Gneiss

shale

limestone

sandstone

granite

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Crushed Rock

Igneous and Metamorphic rocks are very hard and make an excellent source for aggregates

Limestone and Dolomite are common sedimentary rocks, are softer than igneous rocks but are acceptable for aggregates

Shale primarily composed of clay grains is weak and disintegrates easily

Chert also disintegrates easily

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Quarry Pit Development

Opening and Stripping of the face of the quarry Blasting of rock with dynamite into sizes that can be transported Crushing of rock into the required aggregate sizes

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Slag and Mine Refuse

Slag is a waste material resulting from the treatment of ore to produce iron, steel, nickel, ..

Blast furnace slag from iron mills is a common aggregate

Mine tailings can also be used for aggregates

Rubble and Refuse

recycling of pulverized concrete from structures recycled asphalt pavements in base courses recycled rubber, crushed glass in base courses

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates Types of Aggregates

Fine Aggregate

aggregate particles mainly between the 4.75 mm size and the 75um sieve.

Coarse Aggregate

aggregate particles mainly larger than 4.75 mm

Pit Run

aggregate from a sand or gravel pit with no processing

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates Types of Aggregates

Crushed Gravel

pit gravel (or sand) that has been put through a crusher either to break the rounded gravel particles

into smaller sizes or to produce rougher surfaces

Crushed Rock

aggregate from the crushing of bedrock. All particles are angular and not rounded as in gravel

Screenings

chips, dust, powder that are produced from crushing

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Types of Aggregates

Concrete Sand

sand that has been washed to remove dust and fines

Fines

silt, clay, or dust particles smaller than 75um usually the undesirable impurities in aggregates

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Types of Aggregates

Nominal Size

Not economical to have 100% of the particles of an aggregate be within a specified size range.

Reduce as much reject as possible from a pit in order to efficiently use the material resources of a pit

Usually 5% - 10% of the aggregate particles can be allowed to be larger or smaller than specs

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Types of Aggregates

Nominal Size

Coarse aggregates Fine aggregate

Clear

19-4.75 mm nominal aggregate

4.75 mm nominal aggregate

a single size coarse aggregate is called clear. Most of the particles are between the specified maximum

size and a minimum size which is defined as one-

half of the maximum 19 mm clear aggregate

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates Aggregate Properties

Gradation (grain size analysis)

grain size distribution for highway bases and asphalt mixes that will provide a dense strong mixture

ensure that the voids between the larger particles are filled with medium particles. The remaining voids are filled with still smaller particles until the smallest

voids are filled with a small amount of fines. Ensure maximum density and strength using a maximum density curve

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Theoretical Maximum Density Curves Fuller Maximum Density Curve

P = (d/D) 0.5

P = % passing sieve size ‘d’ and ‘D’ represents

the maximum sieve size (100% passing)

Federal Highway Administration

P = (d/D) 0.45

plotted on semi-log paper where sieve sizes are raised to power 0.45

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Gradations

Strength or resistance to shear failure in road bases and pavements is increased greatly if

the mixture is dense graded

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Gradations

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete Aggregate Gradations a) larger particles are in contact with each other
Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete Aggregate Gradations a) larger particles are in contact with each other

a) larger particles are in contact with each other developing frictional resistances to shearing

failure. Particles are tightly bond together due to

the inter-locking effect of smaller particles. This effect is higher in (a) than (b)

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Gradations

b) Must limit the amount of fines

silt and clay particles are relatively weak dust on larger aggregates will interface with the aggregate/asphalt bond

Excessive fines in a base or subbase may lead to drainage on frost leaving problems

Excessive fines (smaller aggregates) results in weak structures because larger particles are

not in contact with each other strength

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Sn (smaller particles) are weaker. Therefore managing % of fines is important.

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Washed Sieve Analysis

as a result it is important in determining the amount passing the 75mm sieve

sample is dried and washed, wash water poured

out over the 75 um sieve

material retained is returned to the sample for sieve analysis

total amount passing 75 um is equal to the amount lost in washing and % passing 75 um sieve

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Example 4-1

Mass of sample 446.7 g

Mass after washing 414.1 g Results of dry sieving:

Retained in

4.75 mm

0.0g

1.18 mm

205.3g

300 mm

127.9g

75 mm

76.4g

Pan

3.8g

Find the grain-size distribution:

Lost in washing over 75 mm= 446.7 g - 414.1 g= 32.6 g

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Passing 75 mm in sieving

Total finer than 75 mm

3.8 g

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36.4 g

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Calculations:

 
 

Retained

Percentage

Cumulative

Sieve

(g)

Retained

Passing

4.75 mm

0

0

100%

1.18 mm

205.3

46.0

54

300 mm

127.9

28.7

25.3

75 mm

76.4

17.1

8.2

Pan

36.4

8.2

446.0

100%

 
Calculations: Retained Percentage Cumulative Sieve (g) Retained Passing 4.75 mm 0 0 100% 1.18 mm 205.3

Note: Only 0.7 g was lost during sieving, which is an

acceptable loss.) If a washed sieve analysis is not

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required, usually for coarse aggregates the procedure for grain-size analysis of soils (see Section 1-3.3) is used

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Aggregate Properties

Gradation (grain size analysis)

High density mixtures are important in terms of

density and asphalt cement required. Asphalt must coat each particle and fill in most of the void space. If you fill in void space with cheaper material such

as aggregates you save asphalt

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

The relative density (specific gravity) and absorption of aggregates are important properties especially in asphalt cement

mixtures

In the mix designs, it is important to measure accurately the volumes occupied by the aggregate and any water that may have

seeped into the pores in the particles.

Therefore voids must be considered in the aggregate.

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

For aggregates

Dry Mass = M D Total Mass = M SSD

(dry mass M D + absorbed water M WA )

Bulk Volume = V B

(includes volume of absorbed water)

Net Volume = V N

V N = V B - volume of absorbed water

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Relative density calculations are made as follows:

Apparent

Bulk

RD A = M D /(V N x r W )

RD B = M D /(V B x r W )

Saturated, surface-dry RDSSD = M SSD /(V B x r W ) Percentage absorption % Abs = M WA /M D

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Saturated Surface Dry

all permeable pores filled with water

Bulk Volume = V NET + V ABSORBED WATER

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregates

Example 4-2 The dry mass of a sample is 2239.1 g. The mass in saturated surface-

is 2268.4 g. The net volume is 835.4 cm3. Find the relative density values.

 

Mass of absorbed water

2268.4 - 2239.1 = 29.3 g

Volume of absorbed water

29.3 g

= 29.3 cm 3

1

g/cm 3

Bulk Volume

835.4 cm 3 + 29.3 cm 3 = 864.7 cm 3

 

Therefore

RD A =

2239.1 g

= 2.68

 
  • 835.4 cm3 x 1 g/cm3

 

RD B =

2239.1 g

= 2.59

 
  • 864.7 cm3 x 1 g/cm3

 

RD SSD =

2268.4 g

= 2.62

 

864.7 cm3 x 1 g/cm3

 

% Abs =

29.3 g

= 1.31%

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2239.1 g

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Aggregates ENCI 579 4 38
Aggregates
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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete Aggregate Properties Aggregate Hardness (resistant to wear)

It is important that aggregates for pavement surfaces not become rounded or polished

thereby reducing skid resistance

Load cycles in the pavement structure tend to break aggregates or fines will result changing

the gradation (finer) resulting in reduced

strength of the pavement structure

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Broken aggregates are not cemented into the structure, again reducing strength

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Properties

• Aggregate Hardness (cont’d)

Resistance to degradation during mixing, transportation, placing and compacting is important as soft particles may break changing the gradation

Los Angeles Abrasion Test measures the hardness of aggregates

Deval Apparatus Aggregate Impact Value Test Polished Stone Value Test

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Properties

Aggregate Durability

resistance to degradation due to cycles of wetting and drying, heating and cooling, and freezing and thawing

freezing and thawing

pore spaces in the aggregate are often saturated and on freezing expands

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repeated cycles can cause the aggregate to break sedimentary rocks are vulnerable because of planes of weakness between layers Soundness Test Field Performance / Absorption Value

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Properties Aggregate Particle Shape/Surface Texture

bonding capability with asphalt cement

particles with rough fractured faces allow a better bond with asphalt cements than rounded smooth

particles

resistance to one particle sliding over another flat, thin, long aggregate particles break easier than cubical particles

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Specifications restrict the percentage of long thin particles and require aggregates particles having at least one fractured face

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Properties Deleterious Substances

harmful or injurious materials including various types of weak or low quality particles or

coatings found on the surface of aggregates

dust (material passing the 75 um sieve) clay lumps, shale, coal particles, friable particles, chert (weak in terms of freezing and thawing)

These substances effect the bond between cements and aggregates and break easily

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Petrographic analysis Sand Equivalency Test

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Properties Aggregate Crushing Strength

crushing strength is the compressive load that aggregate particles can carry before breaking

relatively unimportant for most aggregates strength is higher than the strength of an asphalt mix

Chemical Stability

refers to specific problems due to chemical composition

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Highway Materials, Soils, and

Concrete Aggregate Specifications

Specifications by highway departments takes into account the aggregate properties we just discussed

Requirements for aggregates to be used in bases and subbases differ from aggregates to be used in asphalt mixes

specifications include local experience, availability of materials and type of project

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Properties

Abrasion test:

Original mass 5009g Final mass 3267 g

5009-3267 = 34.8%

5009

Soundness test:

Original mass 2649g

Final mass 2115 g

2649-2115 = 20.2%

2649

-lower strength fines content -drainage and frost heave potential -durability question freeze/thaw resistance

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Sampling and Testing

The characterization of an aggregate source depends on how representative the samples are

taken from the aggregates

size of samples are specified

samples should be obtained from the final product if possible, after all the steps in processing and

transportation have been completed

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Sampling and Testing

Samples taken from a production or discharge should be taken at various times and across the entire cross section of discharge and combined

to form one sample

Sampling from stockpiles requires care due to possible segregation of material. Three samples

should be taken, one from the top third, middle

third, bottom third and combined

Sample tubes for fine aggregate stockpiles should be used, five tube samples combined

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Sampling and Testing

Samples taken from a truck or railway car should be done from a cross sectional trench, three combined to form one sample

Combined samples should be done with equal size component samples

Randomness should be used to determine location or time to eliminate personal bias

Ensure proper identification of the sample Samples should be properly secured

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

Aggregate Sampling and Testing

Samples tested in the lab must be representative of the samples delivered to the lab

Sample Splitting

testing aggregates composed of significant amounts of both coarse and fine aggregates the sample must be split on the 4.75 mm sieve and the two fractions sieved separately

If not, the amount of sample on the fine sieves may be too great for effective sieving

Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

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Highway Materials, Soils, and Concrete

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