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m 

   

MSc Christina Beller

Wind Energy Division, AED


Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy
Wind Energy Division, P.O. Box 49, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
Tel: +45 4677 5434, e-mail: cbel@risoe.dtu.dk


4 ntroduction

4 Urban Wind Turbines

4 Wind Conditions

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O  

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m   ! 
" "
The idea with a wind turbine is to transform some of the energy in the wind
in useable energy
m
power production: maximum power coefficient:
! # $ D % & ! !#'()*+#,-./%
 0  
maximum power coefficient small WT in the kW range have a
!=,-. for MW turbines maximum ! between ,-% and ,-1.

http://www.flatrock.org.nz/topics/environment/energy_options.htm http://logik.dk/site/referencer/referencer-byvindmoller

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m   ! 
""
Load factor:
  0
  0   0  )  2     0 

Load factor ~%,3"1,3 Load factor ~',3 for small-scale


for off-shore MW turbines [1] building mounted WT and ~'+3 for
free standing turbines [1]

A wind field trial in UK showed, that the 57 domestic installed wind turbines
reached up to a load factor of only ~%3.

Among the monitored wind turbines, a 1.5kW building mounted wind


turbine had the maximum load factor yield with +-13.

[1] http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Global-Data/Publications/Location-location-location-The-Energy-
Saving-Trust-s-field-trial-report-on-domestic-wind-turbines

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    2 0
    0
single house hold: 1800 kWh/year
2 persons: 2500 kWh/year
4 persons: 4000 kWh/year

   0 


a 1kW WT produces according to wind climate, positioning and design:
24h * 365days * rated power * load factor = 700kWh/year
that corresponds to ca. 200kWh/year per m2 (3.61m2 in total)
and to about *43 of the energy needs of a 2 persons house hold

a 2MW WT positioned off-shore (e.g.Middelgrund) produces approximarely:


24h * 365days *rated power * load factor = 5256000kWh/year
that corresponds to ca. 1168kWh/year per m2 (4500m2 in total)
and to about ',,3 of 2100 house holds with two persons

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m  m  5 
public - street lamps  i 

- city bikes
- fountaines
- «

private - low voltage grid (12V/24V)  i 




- private power plant


generel, energy should not vanish in the grid,  i 

no new needs shall be invented and
direct connection between generation
and usage shall be maintained
 i  

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O&  O6

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   m 5  
concept study

4 ntegrated in buildings structure

4 Mounted on already existing buildings

4 ree standing turbines

two Proven6 horizontal wind turbines, Blackpool, UK


vertical wind turbine on a flat roof, UK

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2 0    
 m      in Bahrain,
designed by The Atkins

Note:
Three 29m diameter wind turbines are supposed to
deliver ''"'.3 of the energy needs of the
building.

www.bahrainwtc.com

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7 2 0    

6O&& (formerly known as    )


in London, designed by BLS (formerly
Hamilton Architects)

Note:
The three 9m diameter wind turbines are estimated
to deliver 43 of the energy needs of the building.

http://www.stratalondon.com/home

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7 2 0    

!  O 
 in Guangzhou, China,
designed by: SOM

Note:
Besides wind turbines in the slots, photovoltaics
are integrated (B PVs) in the facade. They provide
about ',3 of the energy consumption.

http://www.bryanchristiedesign.com/portfolio.php?illustration=576 http://www.som.com
&category=37&open=

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7 2 0    
 O in M AM , designed by: Oppenheim Architecture + Design

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 5    2   
most projects were — 
  and were not continued

Some manufacturers made   to customer, which they could not fulfill
 bad reputation for the branch of small wind turbines

n the end @ got pretty active in the area of small or so-called micro wind turbines

sizes range from to  diameter and the rated power from  to 

to get the peoples acceptance, the design has to be   


 

QuietRevolution, UK

vertikale møller, UK

Proven, UK

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      5
Use the energy for 

 Not necessarily connected to a building

Prevent that neighbors get irritated, while they do not


gain anything from it
 Usage should     


example  :

Lakes in Copenhagen Spectacular lightning in the city ± supported by



  
wind energy of two ³Proven 6´ turbines
positioned at   , like Copenhagen

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D  2 "  0
8  O  9(:
Manufacturer: QuietRevolution
Concept: 3 bladed lift-driven
Axis: Vertical axis
Rated Power (at 12.5m/s): 6.0kW
Diameter: 3.1m
Height: 5.0m
Swept area: 15.5m2

http://www.quietrevolution.co.uk/qr5.htm

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D  2 "  0
D  
 ',,,)',,,;9':
Manufacturer: Venco GODKENDT
i DK
Concept: 3 bladed lift-driven
Axis: Vertical axis
Rated Power (at 12m/s): 1.0kW
Diameter: 1.9m
Height: 1.9m
Swept area: 3.6m2

http://logik.dk/site/referencer/referencer-byvindmoller

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D  2 "  0
7  m !
 9'-*:
Manufacturer: Mariah Power
Concept: 3 bladed lift-driven
Axis: Vertical axis
Rated Power (at 11.2m/s): 1.2kW
Diameter: 1.2m
Height: 6.1m
Swept area: 7.3m2

http://www.mariahpower.com/windspire-overview.aspx

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ùD  2ù 6  )"  0
&   9':
Manufacturer: Aerotecture
Concept: 2 bladed drag-lift hybrid
Axis: Tilted Vertical axis
Rated Power (at 14m/s): 1.0kW
Diameter: 1.5m
Height: 2.8m
Swept area: 4.2m2

http://www.aerotecture.com/products_520H.html

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<  2 0"
  0 

0  9(,,:
Manufacturer: proCure A/S GODKENDT
i DK
Concept: 3 bladed up-wind lift-driven
Yaw Control: Passive
Axis: Horizontal
Rated Power (at 12.5m/s): 0.6kW
Diameter: 1.8m
Swept Area: 2.5m2

http://www.procure.dk/moeller.htm

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<  2 0"
  

  6  9*-.:
Manufacturer: Wind Energy Solutions
Concept: 3 bladed up-wind lift-driven
Yaw Control: Active
Axis: Horizontal
Rated Power (at 9m/s): 2.5kW
Diameter: 5.0m
Swept Area: 19.6m2

http://www.windenergysolutions.nl/files/foto/big/tu1.jpg
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<  2 0"

&O 9%:
Concept: 2 bladed up-wind lift-driven
Axis: horizontal
Rated Power (at 7m/s): 3W
Diameter: 0.27m
Swept Area: 0.06m2

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<  2 0"

&O 9%:

Mounted on, e.g. a bike, the citizen is


cycling and generating most of the wind.
While the bike is parked and wind is
blowing, energy is produced, meant to
charge small electrical items.

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   "6m

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Wind inbetween and around buildings
wind profiles

H.C. Ørsteds institute


roof top, windrose

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!   

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!   
"=    "

[2] Badde O, Plate EJ (1994) Einfluss verschiedener Bebauungsmuster auf die windinduzierte Gebäudebelastung.
n: Abschlusskolloquium Strömungsmechanische Bemessungsgrundlagen für Bauwerke. University of Karlsruhe

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!   
"    "

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!   
"0  5 "
low direction: š È 90ß

Pressure distribution on
the surface.

Red:
Areas of high pressure
indicating low velocities.

Blue:
Areas of low pressure
indicating high velocities.

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!   
"  '"
low direction: š È 90ß

Streamlines surrounding
the obstacle.

Accelerated flow in the


entrance urban canyon,
not maintained, but lifted
up over the rear building.

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!   
"  *"
low direction: š È 90ß

Streamlines sharply
decelerated at the facade
(high pressure).

Main parts surround the


building, loosing velocity
in the wake areas of the
array.

A small fraction flows over


the buildings roof top and
gets accelerated at the
edge (low pressure).

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!   
"  %"
low direction: š È 90ß

Streamlines hitting the


outstanding tower are
deflected.

Anyway, a reasonable
speed is maintained.

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!   
"  1"
low direction: š È 90ß

Parts of the streamlines


are deflected downwards
at the tower¶s façade

and get decelerated


remarkable.

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!   
"  ."
low direction: š È 90ß

low over in-line obstacles


of a constant high
remains undisturbed, but
slightly lifted in height
gradually.

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!   
" 0 '"
low direction: š È 90ß

irst row:
High speeds due to
undisturbed inflow.

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!   
" 0 *"
low direction: š È 90ß

irst row:
The undisturbed flow is
deflected strongly at the
first row¶s façade, forming
a speed profile on the roof
top¶s front edge.

Second/third row:
Buildings inside the array
and of the same height as
their up-steam buildings
experience homogeneous
speed distributions along
the roof top

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!   
" 0 %"
low direction: š È 90ß

Speed distributions above


roof level are maintained
in areas with buildings of
the same height, although
distances may vary to a
certain extend.

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!   
" 0 1"
low direction: š È 90ß

Outstanding buildings:
The part of a building
higher than the up-stream
building experiences the
µfirst-row¶ effect.

Buildings behind them:


n wake areas the flow is
more turbulent and the
speed is very low.

The wake recovers


depending on the down-
stream situation.

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!   
"
"
low direction: š È 90ß

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!   
"   "
270

180

pole2
pole3

pole1

000

090

O   m      SEB'10 Christina Beller 6-may-2010


!   
"   "

O   m      SEB'10 Christina Beller 6-may-2010


!   
"   "

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  5  5  
4 Christina Beller, 5    > 6   m & *,,/, Risø-R-
1668(EN), October 2009

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