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CONTINUOUS BEAM

LOAD BALANCING METHOD

4/9/2018 1

4/9/2018 2

What is Cable Layout

Cable : A strong thick rope, usually twisted hemp or wire

4/9/2018 3

Simple Beam Layout

Simple Beam: a structural beam that rests on a support

at each end

1. Pretensioned

2. Posttensioned

4/9/2018 4

Pre-tensioning : When the steel is tensioned before concrete

placement, the process is called pre-tensioning.

Post-tensioning : When the steel is tensioned after concrete

placement, the process is called post-tensioning.

4/9/2018 5

Layouts for pre-tensioned beam

easily tensioned between two abutments.

2. Such a section can not often economically designed

because of conflicting requirements of the midspan and

end section.

3. At the maximum moment section generally occuring at

mid span, it is best to place the cable as near to the

bottom as possible.

4. Since there is no external moment at the end it is best to

arrange the tendons so that c.g.s will coincide with c.g.c

4/9/2018 6

Bent Soffit

Curved Soffit

1. For both layouts c.g.s at mid span can be depressed as low as desired.

2. The end can be kept near c.g.c

4/9/2018 7

Bent Extrados Curved Extrados

used.

2. These will give a favorable height at mid span where it is most needed and yet

yield a concentric or nearly concentric prestress at end section.

3. (d) is simpler in formwork than (e).

4/9/2018 8

1. Most pretensionning plans in USA have buried anchores along the stressing

bed so that tendons for a pretensioned beam can be bent.

2. It may be economical to do so if the beam has to be of straight and uniform

section.

4/9/2018 9

Layouts For Post tensioned Beam

1. Most of the layouts for pre tensioned beams can be used for post

tensioned once as well.

2. For a beam of straight and uniform section the tendons are very often

curved.

3. Curving the tendons will permit favorable position of c.g.s to be

obtained at both the end and mid span sections and other points as

well.

4/9/2018 10

combination of curved tendons with curved

soffits

when straight soffits are not required.

2. This will permit a smaller curvature in tendons thus reducing the friction.

4/9/2018 11

1. Curved or bent cables are also combine with beams of variable depth.

4/9/2018 12

1. Some cables are bent upwards and anchored at the top flanges.

2. This arrangements will save some steel but may not be justified unless

the saving is considerable as for very long span carrying heavy loads.

4/9/2018 13

Cantilever Beam

A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. The beam carries the

load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear

stress.

1.Single Cantilevers

2. Double Cantilevers

4/9/2018 14

LAYOUTS FOR SINGLE CANTILEVER

1. For a short span with a short cantilever a straight and uniform section may be

the most economical.

2. It is only necessary to vary the c.g.s profile so that it will confirm with the

requirements of the moment diagrams.

4/9/2018 15

1. When the cantilever span become longer it is advisable to taper the beam.

2. If the anchore span is short compared to the cantilever it may be entirely

subjected to the negative moments and the c.g.s may have to be located

above the c.g.c

4/9/2018 16

1. For longer span it may be desirable to haunched them.

2. The c.g.s profile can be properly curved or may remain practically

straight.

4/9/2018 17

Layouts for double cantilever

1. For short double cantilevers a straight and uniform section can be adopted.

4/9/2018 18

1. If the anchor span is long it may be haunched.

1. If the anchor span is short compared with the cantilevers the c.g.s

line may lie near the top of the beam.

4/9/2018 19

CONTINIOUS BEAM

4/9/2018 20

CONTINUOUS BEAM

A Continuous beam is one, which is

supported on more than two supports.

For usual loading on the beam

hogging ( -ve ) moments causing

convexity upwards at the supports

and sagging ( +ve ) moments causing

concavity upwards occur at mid span.

4/9/2018 21

ASSUMPTIONS OF CONTINUOUS

BEAM

1. The ecentricities of the

prestressing cable are small

compared to length of the

members.

2. Frictional loss of prestress is

negligible.

3. The same tendons run through

4/9/2018

the entire length of the member. 22

Advantages of Continuous Beam

Over Simply Supported Beam

The maximum bending moment in case of

continuous beam is much less than in case of

simply supported beam of same span carrying same

loads.

In case of continuous beam, the average bending

moment is lesser and hence lighter materials of

construction can be used to resist the bending

moment.

4/9/2018 23

COMPARING OF LOAD

CARRYING CAPACITY BETWEEN

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM AND

CONTINIUOUS BEAM

4/9/2018 24

LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF

SIMPLE BEAM

4/9/2018 25

LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF

SIMPLE BEAM

4/9/2018 26

LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF

CONTINUOUS BEAM

4/9/2018 27

LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF

CONTINUOUS BEAM

4/9/2018 28

DISADVANTAGES OF CONTINUOUS BEAM

1. Frictional loss is significant

2. Shortening of long continuous

beam under prestress.

3. Concurrence of maximum moment

and shear over support.

4. Difficulties in achiving continuity

for precast elements.

4/9/2018 29

CABLE LAYOUT OF

CONTINUOUS BEAM

4/9/2018 30

Curbed Tendon In Straight Beam

beams

•The main objections here are the heavy frictional

loss

4/9/2018 31

Straight Tendon In Curbed

Beam

•Often difficult to get the optimum eccentricities

along the beam if the tendons are to remain entirely

straight

4/9/2018 32

Curbed Tendon In Haunched Or

Curbed Beams

ideal position of steel at all points,aboidin excessive

frictional loss.

4/9/2018 33

Overlapping Tendons

the beam

4/9/2018 34

Determination Of Resisting

Moment Of Continuous Beam

1. Plot the primary moment diagram for the entire

continuous beam as produced only by pre-stress

eccentricity. As if there were no support to the beam.

2. Plot shear diagram.

3. Plot loading diagram.

4. Plot moment diagram corresponding to loading diagram

considering all support.

4/9/2018 35

4/9/2018 36

4/9/2018 37

Load Balancing Method

In the overall design of prestressed concrete structure,

the effect of prestressing is viewed as the balancing of

gravity load . This enables the transformation of a

flexural member into a member under direct stress

and thus greatly simplifies both the design and

analysis of structure.

The application of this method requires taking the

concrete as a free body and replacing the tendons with

forces acting on the concrete along the span.

4/9/2018 38

Concept of Load Balancing Method

There are three basic concepts in prestressed concrete

design

1. Stress concept : Treating prestressed concrete as an

elastic material

2. Strength concept: Considering prestressed concrete as

reinforced concrete dealing with ultimate strength.

3. Balanced load concept: Balancing a portion of the load

on the structure.

Load Balancing method follows the third one.

4/9/2018 39

Life History Of Prestressed

Member

Analysing the life history of the prestressed member

under flexure leads to understanding the balanced load

concept relative to other two concept.

So lets find out the load deflection relationship of a

member as a simple beam..

4/9/2018 40

K1 = Factor of

safety applied to

working load to

obtain minimum

yield point.

K2= Factor of

safety applied to

ultimate strength

design to obtain

minimum ultimate

load.

4/9/2018 41

The load deflection relationship of the above figure

leads to several critical points. Such as..

1. Point of no deflection which indicates rectangular

stress block.

block with zero stress at the bottom fiber.

4/9/2018 42

3. Point of cracking which occurs when the extreme fiber

is stressed to the modulus of rupture.

4. Point of yielding at which steel is stressed beyond its

yield point so that complete recovery is not possible.

5. Point of ultimate load which represents the

maximum load carried by the member at failure.

4/9/2018 43

Mechanism & Explanation Of

Balanced load Concept

According to figure there are three stages of beam

Behavior :

Applied Loadings Stages of beam behavior

DL+k3LL No deflection

DL+LL No tension

K2(DL+LL) Ultimate

4/9/2018 44

Where,

DL+LL is the stress concept with some allowable

tension on beam or no tension.

K2(DL+LL) is the strength concept consists with the

ultimate strength of the beam.

DL+K3LL is the balanced load concept with the point

of no deflection where k3 is zero or some value much

less than one.

4/9/2018 45

In balanced load concept design is done by point of no

deflection.

So prestressing is done in such a way so that effective

prestress balances the sustained loading & beam

remain perfectly level without deflecting.

4/9/2018 46

ADVANTAGES OF LOAD BALANCING

METHOD

1.simplest approach to prestressed design and

analysis for statically indeterminate structures.

2.It has advantages both in calculating and in

visualizing.

3.Convenience in the computation of deflections.

4/9/2018 47

SIMPLE & CANTILEVER BEAM

WITH LOAD BALANCING

METHOD

by sharply bending the c.g.s. at midspan , thus creating

an upward component

V=2Fsinθ

4/9/2018 48

If V exactly balances a concentrated load P

Applied at midspan the beam is not subjected to any

transverse load.

The stresses in the beam at any section are simply given

by

additional stresses computed by

4/9/2018 49

Figure illustrates the balancing of a uniformly

distributed load by means of a parabolic cable

whose upward component is given by

4/9/2018 50

If the externally applied load w is exactly balanced by

the component Wb there is no bending in the beam.

The beam is again under a uniform compression with

stress

stresses

4/9/2018 51

Figure represents a cantilever beam. Any vertical

component at the cantilever end C will upset the

balance, unless there is an externally applied load at

that tip.

4/9/2018 52

To balance a uniform load w, the tangent to the c.g.s. at

C will have to be horizontal. Then the parabola for the

cantilever portion can best be located by computing

4/9/2018 53

EXAMPLE PROBLEM OF

CANTILEVER BEAM

A double cantilever beam is to be designed so that its

prestress will exactly balance the total uniform load of 23.3

KN/m normally carried on the beam. Design the beam

using the least amount of prestress, assuming that the c.g.s

must have a concrete protection of at least 76.2mm. If a

concentrated load of 62KN is added at the mid span

compute the maximum top and bottom fiber stresses

4/9/2018 54

SOLUTION:

To use the least amount of prestress, the ecentricity over the

support should be a maximum that is , h=300mm or o.3m.

The prestress required is F = wL2 / 2h

=(23.3x62)/(2x0.300)=1395KN

The sag for the parabola must be h1 = w(L1)2/8F

=(23.3x14.82)/(8*1395)

=0.46m

4/9/2018 55

Uniform compressive stress

f= F/Ac = 1395/(2.28x105) = 6.12 Mpa

Moment M at the mid span due to P=62KN

M=PL/4=(62x14.8)/4=229KN-m

Extreme fiber stresses are

f=Mc/I=6M/bd2 = (6x229x106)/(300x7602)

= 7.93MPa

Stress at mid span are

ftop = -6.12-7.93=-14.05MPa compression

f bottom = -6.12+7.93 =+1.81 MPa tension

4/9/2018 56

EXAMPLE PROBLEM OF

CONTINUOUS BEAMS:

For the symmetrical continuous beam prestressed

with

F= 1420KN along a parabolic cable as shown,

compute the extreme fiber stresses over the center

support DL+LL=23.0KN/m

4/9/2018 57

SOLUTION:

The upward transverse component of prestress is

Wb= 8Fh/L2 = (8x1420x0.3)/(15x15)=15.1KN/m

The beam is balanced under uniform stress

f= (1420x103)/(300x760)= -6.2MPa

For applied load w=23.0 KN/m, the unbalanced

downward load = (23.0-15.1) = 7.9 KN/m

This load produces a negative moment over the center

support, M= wl2/8 =(7.9x152)/8 = 222KN-m

And fiber stresses, f = Mc/I = (6x222x106)/(300x7602)

= 7.68 Mpa

ftop = -6.2+7.68=+1.48MPa tension

f bottom = -6.2-7.68 =+13.88 MPa compression

4/9/2018 58

4/9/2018 59

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