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LCD Lithography

Process & Equipment


志聖工業 高啟清博士
Charles Kao, Ph.D
Tel: 02-2601-0700
Tel: 03-579-4340
Mobile: 0939-268-725
cckao@csun.com.tw 2005/5/30
Why Crystal ?
The most critical component 
in 3C industries.
Communication

Crystal
& Chips
Computing Consumer

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Agenda
• FPD Development & Applications
• TFT LCD Structure & Process
• TFT Litho Process & Exposure
• LCD Driver & TAB/COF
• Summary siemens1_lrg

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Display Categories
CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)
有機 ELD
ELD (Electro_Luminescence Display) 無機 ELD
LED (Light Emission Diode)

自發光型 VFD (Vacuum Fluorescence Display)


薄膜型
FED (Field Emission Display)
顯示器 厚膜型
(Surface Conduction Electron
SED Emitter Display)
DC 型
PDP
(Plasma Display Panel)
AC 型
受光型 PALC(Plasma Address Liquid Crystal)
靜態驅動型
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) 動態驅動型
DLP (Digital Light Processing)

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Current Applications for Display
市場不斷成長

CRT 視訊市場
•TV
Flat-CRT

LED
資訊市場
顯 OLED
•Monitor
•NB

器 PDP
可攜式市場
LCD •手機
FPD
•PDA
LED:Light Emission Diode VFD •DSC
OLED:Organic Light Emission Diode •DVC
VFD: Vacuum Fluorescence Display FED
FED: Field Emission Display •Car Display
SED: Surface-conduction Emission Display •Screen Phone
SED •e-Book
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TFT-LCD : A High Growth Industry
從 1998 到 2007 年 , 產值將成長八倍 !
US$ billions 55.8
52.9
55 45.3
50
45 35.5
40
28.5
35
22.4
30 16.8
13.4 14.7
25
20 TFT-LCD
15 6.5 產值
10
5
0
1998 1999
2000 2001
2002 2003
2004 2005 2006
2007
資料來源 : DisplaySearch, Q2/2003

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Taiwan TFT-LCD Timeline
notebook application only
LCD monitor >1M sets
Japan Korea Taiwan LCD TV
started entered entered >1M sets
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04
G1 G2 G3 G3.5 G4 G5 G6

Unipac ADT AUO

Prime View CPT Toppoly


CMO
QDI Innolux
HSD
mainly small/medium-size panels
mainly large-size panels
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Generation of TFT-LCD Fabs
 Mother Glass size, mean time to double = 4 years (G1 – G4), 1.5 years (> G4)
Relative Glass Size in Each Generation
TFT LCD Generation Migration
10000.0
G7
GX ~2200x~2400
G7 1870x2200
G6
G6 1500x1850
Glass Area (k-mmxmm)

G5 1100x1250
1000.0
G4 680x880 G5 1m x 1m

G3 550x670 G4
G3.5 600x720
G3
G2 370x470
G2
100.0 G1 300x400
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006
Year

Source : AUO

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Mother-Glass Size vs. Panel Size
G3.5 15” x 4 23” x 2

G4 15” x 6 30” x 2

G5 15” x 15 46” x 2

G6 15” x 30 66” x 2

Each generation allows production of larger size panels or


more panels per substrate (increased efficiency).
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G6 Glass for 32” / 37” LCD

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G8 Glass at Yokohama 2004/10

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Agenda
• FPD Development & Applications
• TFT LCD Structure & Process
• TFT Litho Process & Exposure
• LCD Driver & TAB/COF
• Summary

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LCD Principle – 1 (Image)

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LCD Principle – 2 (Color)
彩色濾光片
玻璃基板

畫素

主動元素
( 電晶體 )

X電 偏光板
Y 電極

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TFT LCD Structure
Array 基板 驅動 IC 偏光板

Controller Color Filter


彩色濾光片

PCB 基板

Inverter 轉換器 Lamp 燈泡Back Plate 背光板


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TFT LCD Detailed Structure
間隔粒 彩色濾光板
保護膜 玻璃基板 偏光片 液晶
共通電極
配向膜
密封材料
配向膜
Gate 電極
TCP

控制 IC

印刷電路板 偏光片
顯示電極
擴散板

導光板
線光源 反射板斜方晶
驅動 IC TFT 密封材料
Source 電極

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Role of TFT in the TFT-LCD : Switch

Pixel Electrode
Gate Charge ITO

Operation
1) Check if Gate Line voltage
2) TFT Turn-on
3) Check if signal voltage on pixel
4) Liquid Crystal Operation
5) Change of screen display

Capacity storage

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TFT Pixel Structure

TFT
Pixel Array

GATE Pixel
SOURCE
DRAIN
a-si

Insulator

Glass

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Comparison of MOSET & TFT

MOSFET (p-type) a-Si TFT

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Color Filter Structure
Spacer
Color Resist

ITO Film

R G B R G B

Glass Substrate

Cr BM Film

Color Array
Red Green Blue

ITO

Glass

Black Matrix

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TFT LCD Process

TFT Array 製作 Color Filter 製作

LCD Panel 製作

COG Structure
SMT Structure
IC(Bump) FPC/Heat Seal
FPC/Heat Seal LCD Module 製作
IC: SOP;QFP
LCD LCD

Frame
PCB/PWB ACF
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TFT LCD Process - expand
C BM Deposit
T Thin Film Deposit Process F
Color Filter Photo Process
F 5~7
Photo-lithography Process
T Mask 製 Etch Process
製 程
程 Etch Process
RGB Coating
TFT Device Test R
Array Process G RGB Patterning
B
Alignment Layer Coat RGB Developing
L LC Alignment Process
C Inspection
Cell Process D TFT/CF Alignment
製 LC Filling Process

LCD Panel Test
Module Process (LCM)
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TFT Process
Glass GATE Electrode Insulator & a-SiDATA Electrode Passivation Pixel Electrode

Pattern- Pattern- Pattern- Pattern- Pattern-


ing ing ing ing ing

Deposition & Patterning Process in Detail

Deposition Cleaning PR Coating Exposure Develop Etch PR Strip Inspection


PECVD
RF Wet Etch

H H
HSiH H
N H H
H H
H
SiN Si NSiN

SPUTTER Dry Etch


Gas RF
Ar+
Al
Al Al
DC Al
Al PLASMA
Al FO
Si Si
Ar+
SiF4
TARGET SUBSTRA
TE

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Color Filter Process
Glass BM Red Green Blue ITO

Pattern- Pattern- Pattern- Pattern- Pattern-


ing A ing B ing B ing B ing A

Deposition & Patterning Process in Detail


C/F
Colored PR Coating Exposure Develop Inspection
A B

B/M

Deposition Cleaning PR Coating Exposure Develop Etch Strip


Wet Etch
SPUTTER
Ar+
Al
Al Al
DC Al
AlAl
Ar+ Dry Etch
TARGET Gas RF
SUBSTRA
TE
PLASMA
FO
Si Si

SiF4

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LCD Cell Process

C/F

Rubbing Seal Printing


Cleaning Alignment-Layer Printing LC Alignment
Treating
Spacer Dispensing

TFT 3

Assembly Scribing & Breaking LC Injection Autoprobe Inspection

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Panel Size and Utilization
3.5 代面板 : 長 720mm 寬 610mm

13.3”~14.1” 15”~17” 20” 22”~32”

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LCD Module Process
Cell Cleaning Polarizer AttachmentTAB Attachment Autoclav
e

PCB B/L Inspecti Aging Inspecti Packagin


Attachment Assembly on on g

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LCD Module Configuration
• Chip On Glass / COG
– PDA
• Tape Automatic
Bonding / TAB
– Tape Carrier Package
– STN
– TFT panel, Monitor
• Chip On Film / COF
– TFT panel, Monitor
– Color STN

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Agenda
• FPD Development & Applications
• TFT LCD Structure & Process
• TFT Litho Process & Exposure
• LCD Driver & TAB/COF
• Summary

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TFT Litho Process Cycle

Fi gai
lm n
a
CLEANING

pr
oc
lm
Fi p.

e
ss
de
P.R PROCESS P.R
Stripping
CYCLE coating
g
in
t ch M
E a
l m Ex sk
Fi p.
Developer

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Nikon FX-701M
Resolution 2.4 µm (isoluated line)
3 µm (L/S)
Projection 1 : 1.25 (Magnification)

Exposure 132x132~105x153mm
Field (φ186mm)
Reticle 6 inch

Plate 600x700 mm

alignment ≤ 0.5 µm
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Nikon Fx701M Stepper
Reticle Loader
System
Optical
System

Control
Rack
Stage

Plate loader
System
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Projection Exposure in LCD Stepper

A
B
Projection
C
D

Lens

Plate

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Exposure with Stitching

D
C
B
A

D
B

B
C

C
A

A
D

D
B

B
C

C
A

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Stitch Subpattern into a Whole Pattern
• Light Stitching
– Use optical blade to shadow edge of exposure
field to create half intensity region
– Double exposure at the overlapping zone
– Need precise alignment
• Alignment
• Focusing and Leveling

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OMO LCD Stepper EM-5134
Resolution 2.4 µm
3.0 (L/S)
Exposure Field Size 120x100 mm
140x94 mm
Reduction Ratio 1:1
Distortion ≤ ±0.25 mm
Depth of Focus ≥ ±10 mm
Exposure Power ≥ 145 mW/cm2
Illumination Uniformity ≤ ±1.5%
Repeatability, of the Main Unit 3σ ≤ 0.1 µm
Alignment Accuracy, 3σ ≤ 0.5 µm
Stitching, 3σ ≤ 0.7 µm
Plate Stage Size 950x1100 mm
Plate Contraction Correction ≥ ±20 ppm
Reticle Size 6 inch
Reticle Number in Changer 8
Throughput, planels / hour (panels/ plate):
diagonal -12.1 inch 360 (6)
diagonal - 17 inch 330 (6)
diagonal - 21 inch 200 (4)
diagonal - 30 inch 120 (2)
diagonal - 40 inch 70 (1)
diagonal - 50 inch 48 (1)
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Agenda
• FPD Development & Applications
• TFT LCD Structure
• TFT Litho Process & Exposure
• LCD Driver & TAB/COF
• Summary

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LCD Driver Connection
• Conventional • WOA+COG (under
– TAB+PCB to drive Panel development)
– FPC to connect X & Y – COG replace Y side TAB
PCBs – WOA on glass replace
FPC cable
– Only X PCB
– Reduce weight and cost

Source: CMO, Samsung

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TAB Substrate Layout

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USHIO Reel-to-Reel Exposure
• Projection exposure
– Lamp: 500W, 1KW, 2KW
– Reduction ratio: 1:1
– Wavelength: G, h, I line
– Uniformity: 5%
• Film size: 35, 70, 105 mm
• Resolution: L/S 9 µm
• Alignment: TTL, 5 µm

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TAB & COF
• TAB • COF

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TAB and COF Roadmap
2003 2003 2004 2004 Future Limit
Type FPC/TAB TAB COF
Cell phone, LCD
Application Cell phone TV, LCD Monitor
Pitch (μm) 60~50 45 38 30 25
L/S (μm) 22/23 19/19 15/15 12.5/12.5
Total Pitch Error (μm) 5~8 5 4 3
Alignment
To center of punch
Criterion hole To sprocket
Accuracy ± 20μm
Film
Film Width (mm) 250 35/48/70 70 105 150
PI Thickness (μm) 75 38 25
Cu Thickness (μm) 12 8
Carrier Film (μm)
Total Thickness (μm) 100
Photo Resist
Resist Type DF, Negative LF, Positive DF,
Thickness (μm) 3 2.5

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TCP Assembly Process

Incoming Gold Circuit Inking Grinding Die Saw


Wafer Bumping Probing

Potting ILB
Pick & Place
Marking

Final Testing Packing Packing


Source: Fupo
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Gold Bumping Process
• Incoming Wafer
• UBM Sputtering

• Resist Coating

COG • Resist Patterning


– Thick film exposure
• Gold Plating

Ultra fine
• Resist Striping

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• UBM Etching
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Summary

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Supply-Chain in TFT-LCD Industry

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FPD Development Trend
1. 色彩
單色→簡單色彩 (8 色 )→ 彩色 (512 色 )→ 全彩色 (1677 萬色 )
2. 顯示
小面積→大面積
平面顯像→立體顯像
3. 畫質
低解析度→高解析度
UGA
1/4 VGA →1/2 VGA → VGA → SVGA → XGA → SXGA →
QXGA
4. 外觀
厚重→輕薄
5. 環保
高能源消 →低能源消
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47
References
• 顧鴻壽等 , 光電平面面板顯示器基本概論 , 高立圖書 ,
2004.
• 北原洋明 , 新液晶產業論 , 工業調查會 , 2004, ISBN:4-
7693-1235-0.
• 2005 年平面顯示器發展趨勢探討 , 電子時報 Seminar, 2005.
• 林定皓 , 平面顯示器技術介紹 , TPCA Seminar, 2004.
• 江文章 , TFT LCD 產業發展之趨勢 , 中原大學 Seminar,
2004.

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