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District cooling

Engineer Fahad Hasan


Associate
Yousuf Hasan Associates,
Consulting engineers
Introduction
 District Cooling
 Components
 Central Plant
 Distribution Network
 Consumer System

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Pros&Cons of District Cooling
 More efficient due to
simultaneous production of
cooling and electricity

 Long term commitment

 More beneficial for area with


high population density

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
The Central Plant
 Selection Criteria

 Environmental Impact
 Efficiency, COP, IPLV
 Useful life
 Initial cost
 Running cost
 Availability
 Maintainability

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Chiller efficiency rating
 Coefficient of performance

 kW/TR for Peak Ratings

 Integrated Part Load Value

 Nonstandard Part Load


value

 Multiple Chillers

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Refrigerants
Montreal Protocol
The 1987 Montreal Protocol, and subsequent revisions, established
the following timeline for the phase-out of chlorinated fluorocarbons
(CFC) and hydrochlorinated fluorocarbons (HCFC)
Refrigerant Year Restrictions
CFC-11 1996 Ban on Production
CFC-12 1996 Ban on Production
HCFC-22 2010 Production Freeze and ban on use in new equipment
2020 Ban on Production
HCFC-123 2015 Production Freeze
2020 Ban on use in new equipment
2030 Ban on Production
HFC 134a - No restrictions

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Refrigerants

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Water Chiller Comparison
Chiller Type Capacity First COP IPLV
Range (tons) Cost Range Range
Range COP
$/ton
Reciprocating 50-230 200-250 4.2-5.5 4.6-5.8

Screw 70-400 225-275 4.9-5.8 5.4-6.1

Centrifugal 200-2000 180-300 5.8-7.1 6.5-7.9

Single effect 100-1700 300-450 0.6-0.7 0.63-


Absorption 0.77
Double effect 100-1700 300-550 0.92-1.2 1.04-
Absorption 1.30
Engine Driven 100-3000 450-600 1.5-1.9 1.8-2.3

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Reciprocating Chiller
 Typically uses R22 but also
available with R134a and
R717

 Larger machine with multiple


compressors

 Lower first cost but higher


initial cost

 Control is achieved by
stepping unload and cycling
compressor on/off

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Screw Chiller
 Positive displacement
machines

 Typically uses R22, R134a,


R410a & R717

 Available with single screw


and twin screw compressor

 Having fewer moving parts

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Centrifugal Chiller
 Centrifugal chillers have
highest full load efficiency
rating of all the chillers
discussed

 Uses high pressure refrigerant


R22 and R134a & low
pressure refrigerant R123

 Air cooled & water cooled are


available but due to very low
COP and very high initial cost
air cooled centrifugal chillers
are very seldom used.

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Absorption Chiller
 Absorption chiller can be
single effect or double
effect.

 Double effect absorption


chillers are more efficient
than Single effect
absorption chiller while
Single effect is beneficial
where low quality steam or
hot water available

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Engine Driven Chiller
 Uses same vapor
compression cycle as
electric chillers except it
uses reciprocating engine
or gas or –steam driven
turbine as prime mover.

 Range of refrigerants may


be used including R22,
R123, R134a and R717

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Combined heat & power (CHP)
 CHP is simultaneous production of
electricity and heat from single
source fuel i.e. natural gas,
biogas, biomass, coal, waste heat
or oil.

 Typically waste heat of gas turbine


or engine via waste heat recovery
boiler and heat exchangers and
utilized to operate absorption
chiller

 Multi-energy chillers directly fed by


flue exhaust of the engines

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Benefits of CHP
 Efficiency Benefit

STANDARD RANGES OF ACHIEVABLE


EFFIENCY
CHP PRIME OVERALL EFFIENCY
MOVER
Steam turbines 80 percent
Diesel Engine 70-80 percent
Natural Gas Engine 70-80 percent

Gas Turbine 70-75 percent


Micro Turbine 65-75 percent
Fuel Cell 65-75 percent

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Benefits of CHP
 Reliability Benefit

 Combined heat and power


(CHP) systems, when
properly designed, provide
critical power reliability for
a variety of businesses
and organizations while
providing electric and
thermal energy to the sites
on a continuous basis,
resulting in daily operating
cost saving.

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Benefits of CHP
 Environmental Benefit

 Combined heat and power


(CHP) system offer
considerable environmental
benefits when compared with
purchased electricity and
onsite generated heat. By
capturing and utilizing heat that
would otherwise be wasted
from the production of
electricity, CHP systems
requires less fuel than
equivalent separate heat and
power systems to produce the
same amount of energy.

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Benefits of CHP
 Economic Benefit

 Reduced Energy Costs

 Protection of Revenue
streams

 Hedge against volatile


energy prices

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt
Conclusion
 Long tern commitment
 Requires careful design
 Advance flue gas cleaning
 Attention must be given to;
 environmental impact,
 COP & IPLV
 Initial cost & Running cost
 Useful life & Maintainability

 The benefits of CHP and/or


thermal storage with district
cooling system becomes more
prominent as compare to
decentralized small cogeneration
and/or thermal energy storage
plants due too larger size of plant

“Road to Climate Friendly Chillers - Moving Beyond CFCS and HCFCS” September 30 – October 1, 2010 – Cairo, Egypt