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# Kainat Qayyum

Landscape presentation
SUBMITED TO
AR MEHVISH ZAHRA
CH#9 DIAGONAL

The study of angular geometry appropriately begins with its most rudimentary
elements:THE DIAGONAL.
Comprises the sides, axes and internal connection
Employed on its own the landscape to exploit its unique qualities.
Diagonal is a straight line.
Diagonal represent a transition
THIS CHAPTER EXAMINES THE VARIES ASPECTS OF THE DIAGONAL.
DEFINITION
TYPOLOGIES
LANDSCAPES USES
DESIGN GUIDELINES The diagonal within a circle and triangle
DEFINITION
• Derivation of the latin word “diagonas” meaning slanted line and is
technically defined a line that connects two non consective corners of
any polygone.
• Easily seen in square and rectangle as a bisect line
• Exists within a circle a diameter or a chord
• Triangle is a diagonal when positioned at angle.
• Derivation of other geometric system posses an oblique or slanted
relationship to them.
• Its association with adjacent lines and forms.
The diagonal as a line.

2D LINE 3D ELEMENTS
CHANGE
TYPOLOGIES
• Three fundamental types of diagonals are as follows.
LINE:
• Straight line tilted with its surroundings.
• Diagonal line possesses qualities of orthogonal straight line.
• Expressed as a two dimensional rotated upward from the base plane.
• In three dimension the diagonal my be uniform in height or vary as a
dynamic gesture.

## A diagonal plane may be uniform or

varied in height.
IMPLIED DIAGONAL
• Assemblages of lines,and a elements that collectively convey a
diagonal.
• Expressed as a material edge ,bench, wall, hedge,tree mass and so on.
EXAMPLE:
Zig Zag
• A series of continuous right angle corners placed at an angle to their
context.
• Orthogonal structure conveys an implied diagonal by being tilted.
• Zigzag considered imitation of the cubist aesthetic.
• First experimented with European Garden (Modern movement)
• Emulated in numerous modernistic garden designed by Garret Eckbo,
Thomas Church in1948.
• Here low wood bench is designed as a saw toothed element at the
edge of a diagonally aligned checkerboard deck to suggest pockets for
people to sit.
• Contemporary example is Cambridge center roof garden design by
PETER Walker in 1979.
• Based on a grid defined by raised planters filled with ground cover.
• Pattern emulates the parterre of a Franch Renaissance garden and
punctuated by series of metal structures that are abstraction of trees.
• Open spaces, pattern of planters focuses attention.
ROTATION
A third type of diagonal
• Landscape is the rotation of an entire geometric system in rotation to
the site boundaries,adjoining building,and or contextual streets.
• Common rotation is an orthogonal design.
• The diagonal created by rotating an entire design in relation to site
edges.
• Applied to other geometric organization .
• Most profound type.
LANDSCAPE USES
• To fullfil functions inherent to canted orientation.
• Some of all applications are best fulfilled by one of the diagonal
typologies.
• Rotation design constructs share fundamental qualities.
• Diagonal line can direct the eye,accommodate movement, provide an
architectural extention and create rhythm.
INTERVENTION
• Diagonal to its context makes an ideal element.
• Diagonal line that is placed is an orthogonal organization establishes a
• The diagonal line emphasizes the undulation of the other geometries
by its polarities of character.
DIVIDING EDGE
• Impart anintentional fracture that creates a conspicuous edges
between dissimilar uses,design styles and or materials.
• Diagonal line clearly distinguishable from adjoining lines and forms.
TRANSFORM ORIENTATION
• Primary qualities of the diagonal is its ability to capture and lead the
eye in a direction that varies from its context.
• One example of this is the THOMAS BARRIES PARK in London.
• Diagonal also accommodate circulation.
ILLUSION OF DISTANCES
• Diagonal is a superb device to employ in the landscape to give the
impression of prolonged distance.
• Diagonal is orientated at an angle of orthogonal site,exend across
greater distances from that are parallel to the site boundaries.
• Rotation diagonal give entire site the illusion of being larger.
ACCOMMODATE CIRCULATION
• Diagonal is a useful component to accommodate movement.
• Primary path of movement.
• Corridores are ideal for accommodating.
• Goose foot device is used.
DESIGN GUIDE LINES
Are as follow:
USE INTENTIONALLY
• Diagonal is potent design element
• Diagonal is an idiosyn cratic element diagonal may unnecessarily draw
attention to inappropriate on site amd off site area.
LOCATION IN DESIGN
• Diagonal line placed carefully in a landscape design.
• Clearly distinct in relation to its frame of refrences.
• Diagonal lines should be located so that it does not divide space.
CONNECTION TO CONTEXT
• Diagonal is always at odds.
• Design guidelines offered for the triangle also apply to the diagonal.
• Acute angle create problems that should be avoided.
MATERIAL COORDINATION
• Should be treated like they are along a straight line.
• Plant materials, especially trees and other moody structural
vegetation,are effectively used.
• Material is rotated diagonal structure.
TOPOGRAPHY
• Topography base for rotated diagonal layout should be treated like
the grid or asymmetrical orthogonal design structures.
• A diagonal wall, hedge , and so on may vary in height or extend across
uneven topography.
SUMMARY
• DEFINATION a line that connected nonconsecutive corners of any
polygon
• Typologies three fundamental types of diagonals in the landscape.
• Line A straight line tilted with respect to its surroundings is the most
recognizable genre of the diagonal in the landscape.
• Implied Diagonal assemblage of lines, and/or elements that
collectively convey a diagonal in the landscape.
• RotationRotation to create a diagonal can be accomplished in
different geometric organizations.
• Landscape Uses the diagonal line can direct the eye, accommodate
movement, provide an architectural extension, and create rhythm in
same manner as a straight line.
• Intervention its context makes it an ideal element for intervention in a
landscape.
• Dividing Edge the landscape is to impart an intentional fracture that
creates a conspicuous edge between dissimilar uses, design styles,
and/or materials.
• Transform Orientation ability to capture and lead the eye in a
direction that varies from its context.
• Illusion of Distance The diagonal can create the illusion of distance in
a confined site.
• Accommodate Circulation The diagonal can accommodate circulation
between opposite points in an orthogonal layout.
• Design Guidelines
• Use Intentionally The diagonal should have an obvious contrast to its contextual
design.
• Location in Design its alignment is clearly distinct in relation to its frame of
reference.
• Connection to Context The diagonal should not create acute angles with other
site elements.
• Material Coordination eff ectively used along the length of the diagonal to
reinforce its directionality and its eff ectiveness as a spatial edge.
• Topography A diagonal wall, hedge, and so on may vary in height or extend
across uneven topography.