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Topic 4 Carbon Compounds

4.5 Analysing the process of making soap from oil palm


and the cleaning action of soap

ITeach – Science Form 5


Topic 4 Carbon Compounds
Analysing The Process Of Making Soap From Oil Palm And The Cleaning Action Of Soap

Structure Of Soap Molecules

Soluble in OIL
(H_____________)

Soluble in WATER
(H_____________)

Ionic head dissolves in water easily h________

long hydrocarbon does not dissolve in water, but


dissolves in organic compound such as greases and
oils h____________

ITeach – Science Form 5


Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the lesson, students are able
to:
a)Carry out the experiment of making soap
from oil
b)B) list down the characteristics of soap
Aim:
To study the process of making soap
Apparatus / Materials:
Palm oil, Concentrated sodium hydroxide
solution, sodium chloride powder, water, red
litmus paper, beaker, tripod stand, wire gauze,
Bunsen burner, glass rod, spatula, measuring
cylinders, test tube
Procedure:
1. Pour 5cm3 of palm oil and 30cm3 of concentrated sodium
hydroxide solution into a beaker.
2. Boil and stir the mixture slowly for 5 minutes.
3. Add 50cm3 of water and two spatulas of sodium chloride
powder.
4. Boil and stir the mixture for 5 minutes.
5. Allow the mixture in the beaker to cool down and filter the
residue that is form.
6. Rinse the residue with a little water and dry with filter paper.
7. Touch the residue and shake it with water in a test tube.
8. Use the red litmus paper to test the residue. Observe the colour
on red litmus paper.
Observation
1. When touched, the residue feels _________________.
2. When shaken with water, ______________ are produced.
3. When tested with red litmus paper, the colour change from
___________ to ____________
Analysis
1. One inference:
The white solid that is formed is __________________
2. Name of process : _______________________
3. Equation:
Palm oil + Sodium hydroxide  __________ + ____________
4. Others substances that can be used to replace sodium
hydroxide?
___________________________
5. Others substances that can be used to replace palm oil?
__________________________
6. Function of sodium chloride:
____________________________________________________
7. (a) P : __________________
Dissolves in _____________ or _________________
Q: ___________________
Dissolves in ________________.