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• According to the iron–carbon phase diagram


[1–3], all binary Fe–C alloys containing less
than about 2.11 wt% carbon* are classified as
steels, and all those containing higher carbon
content are termed cast iron.
Steels are the most complex and
widely used engineering materials
because of
• the abundance of iron in the Earth’s crust
• the high melting temperature of iron (15348C)
• a range of mechanical properties, such as
moderate (200–300 MPa) yield strength with
excellent ductility to in excess of 1400 MPa yield
stress with fracture toughness up to 100 MPa m2
• associated microstructures produced by solid-
state phase transformations by varying the
cooling rate from the austenitic condition
• Steels contain alloying elements and
impurities that must be associated with
austenite, ferrite, and cementite
• The combined effects of alloying elements and
heat treatment produce an enormous variety
of microstructures and properties.
According to the effect on matrix, alloying
elements can be divided into two categories:
• By expending the γ-field, and encouraging the
formation of austenite, such as Ni, Co, Mn, Cu, C,
and N (these elements are called austenite
stabilizers)
• By contracting the γ-field, and encouraging the
formation of ferrite, such as Si, Cr, W, Mo, P, Al,
Sn, Sb, As, Zr, Nb, B, S, and Ce (these elements
are called ferrite stabilizers)
Alloying elements can be divided into two categories
according to the interaction with
carbon in steel:
• Carbide-forming elements, such as Mn, Cr, Mo,
W, V, Nb, Ti, and Zr. They go into solid solution in
cementite at low concentrations. At higher
concentrations, they form more stable alloy
carbides, though Mn only dissolves in cementite.
• Noncarbide-forming elements, such as Ni, Co, Cu,
Si, P, and Al. They are free from carbide in steels,
and normally found in the matrix [5,11,12].
CLASSIFICATION OF STEELS. Steels can be classified by
different systems depending on [4,6,8]:
• Compositions, such as carbon (or nonalloy), low-alloy, and alloy steels
• Manufacturing methods, such as converter, electric furnace, or electroslag
remelting methods
• Application or main characteristic, such as structural, tool, stainless steel, or
heatresistant steels
• Finishing methods, such as hot rolling, cold rolling, casting, or controlled rolling
and controlled cooling
• Product shape, such as bar, plate, strip, tubing, or structural shape
• Oxidation practice employed, such as rimmed, killed, semikilled, and capped steels
• Microstructure, such as ferritic, pearlitic, martensitic, and austenitic (Figure 1.1)
• Required strength level, as specified in the American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) standards
• Heat treatment, such as annealing, quenching and tempering, air cooling
(normalization), and thermomechanical processing
• Quality descriptors and classifications, such as forging quality and commercial
quality
Spesifikasi baja
• Spek ASTM
• Spek AMS
• Spek MIL
• Spek API
• Spek ANSI
• Spek AWS
• Spek ASME
• INTERNATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS AND DESIGNATIONS
– ISO
– GB
– DIN
– JIS
– BS
– AFNOR
LASER WELDING
Laser welding operates in two
fundamentally different modes
• conduction limited welding and
• keyhole welding