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Inequalities

Grades D to A
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
Solving linear
Inequalities Solving
inequalities with
on a number linear
2 inequality
line inequalities
signs

Hyperlinks!

Solving Shading Describing


tougher regions of inequalities
inequalities graphs from regions
Inequalities on a number line

Learning Objective:
Can I represent and read inequalities on
a number line?
Grade D
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
What are the inequality signs?
There are 4 inequality signs.

> < ≥ ≤
Greater than Less than Greater than Less than or
or equal to equal to

You may have heard “the crocodile eats the bigger


number”.
So 8 > 5 and 2 < 7.

They work a bit like “equals” signs.


What’s the point of inequality signs?
Some problems don’t have one specific answer.

Inequalities give a range of possible answers.

But you have to give the whole range of answers


by using an inequality sign.

We can represent this range of answers on a


number line.
How do the number lines work?
We use two different “dots” to show the specific
number named in the inequality.

○ represents < or >.

● represents ≤ or ≥.

We then draw an arrow from the dot.


Some examples:
Represent 𝑥 > −1 on the number line.

Represent 𝑥 ≤ 3 on the number line.


-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Represent these inequalities on a
number line:
1. 𝑥 < 4
2. 𝑥 ≥ 2
3. 𝑥 ≤ −3




-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
What about this?
Represent −1 < 𝑥 ≤ 3.

We still use the same system:


Put a dot above each of the numbers.
Join them up with a line.

○ ●
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Represent these inequalities on a
number line:
1. 1 < 𝑥 < 4
2. −4 ≤ 𝑥 < 2

● ○
○ ○
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
One last thing:
You may be asked to list all the integers that “satisfy
an inequality”.
“Integer” means “whole number”.

For example:
List all integers that satisfy the inequality −3 < 𝑥 ≤
4.

All you do is write the numbers that are between -3


and 4, then include 4 (look at the inequality sign!).

Answer: -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4


List the integer values that satisfy the
inequalities below:
1. −2 ≤ 𝑥 < 3
-2, -1, 0, 1, 2

2. 1 < 𝑥 ≤ 5
2, 3, 4, 5
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
Solving linear inequalities

Learning Objective:
Can I solve an inequality?
Grade C
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
Title: Solving inequalities
Starter:
Write down five possible integer values for the
following inequalities:

1) x>5
2) x < 15
3) 13 < x < 25
4) 9 < x ≤ 15
How do you solve inequalities?
Can you solve this? Solving inequalities is
exactly the same:

2𝑥 + 3 = 11 2𝑥 + 3 < 11

2𝑥 = 8 2𝑥 < 8

𝑥=4 𝑥<4
Try solving these inequalities:
1. 3𝑥 + 2 < 5 𝒙<𝟏

2. 5𝑥 − 4 ≥ 26 𝒙≥𝟔

3. 4𝑥 + 7 > 35 𝒙>𝟕

4. 7 < 2𝑥 − 5 𝟔<𝒙
or
𝒙>𝟔
Be careful with negatives!
When you multiply or divide an inequality by a
negative number, the inequality sign swaps
around.

The same thing happens with equals signs, only


it makes no difference.
Main

Challenge
For example: solve 𝟏𝟑 − 𝟑𝒙 > 𝟕
Method 1 Method 2
13 − 3𝑥 > 7 13 − 3𝑥 > 7
[add 3𝑥]
[subtract 13] 13 > 7 + 3𝑥
[subtract 7]
−3𝑥 > −6 6 > 3𝑥
[divide by 3]
[divide by -3] 2>𝑥
which can be written:
𝑥<2 𝑥<2

Both methods give the same answer!


Have a go at solving these:
1. 21 − 8𝑥 ≥ 13
𝒙≤𝟏

2. 5 − 4𝑥 < 13
𝒙 > −𝟐
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
Solving with two inequality
signs
Learning Objective:
Can I solve an inequality that contains
two inequality signs?
Grade C
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
Two inequality signs? How on earth…?
This looks horrible, but really isn’t – honestly!

All you do is split the two bits up and solve like


you have done before.

You then put them back together again at the


end.
An example:
Solve 5 < 2𝑥 − 1 < 13 .

6 < 2𝑥 2𝑥 < 14

3<𝑥 𝑥<7

3<𝑥<7
Solve these inequalities and write all
the integer values that satisfy them:
1. 8 ≤ 3𝑥 + 2 < 23
𝟐≤𝒙<𝟕
Integer values: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

2. −5 < 4𝑥 + 3 ≤ 19

−𝟐 ≤ 𝒙 < 𝟒
Integer values: -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
Solving inequalities with letters
on both sides
Learning Objective:
Can I solve inequalities with letters on
both sides?
Grade B
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
What do you mean?
This is where the letter appears on both sides of
the inequality sign.

Solving them uses all the principals you’ve used


before.

Just be careful what you do with the inequality


sign.
An example:
Solve 5𝑥 − 3 > 3𝑥 + 5
Get the letter
onto one side [subtract 3𝑥]
Get the
2𝑥 − 3 > 5
numbers on [Add 3]
the other side
2𝑥 > 8
Find the value
of 𝑥
[Divide by 2]
Answer:
𝒙>𝟒
Another example:
Solve 7 − 2𝑥 > 3𝑥 − 8
Get the letter
onto one side [add 2𝑥]
Get the
7 > 5𝑥 − 8
numbers on [Add 8]
the other side
15 > 5𝑥
Find the value
of 𝑥
[Divide by 5]
Answer:
𝟑 > 𝒙 or 𝒙 < 𝟑
Solve these inequalities:
1. 7𝑥 + 3 ≥ 3𝑥 + 11
𝒙≥𝟐

2. 𝑥 − 7 < 4𝑥 + 2
𝒙 > −𝟑
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
Shading regions

Learning Objective:
Can I shade the correct region of a
graph given an inequality?
Grade B
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
What does this involve?
You will need to know how you plot linear
graphs in the forms:
𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐
𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 = 𝑛

You then shade either side of the line depending


upon the inequality sign.

There will often be more than one inequality to


deal with!
One more thing:
The lines are different depending upon the
inequality sign.

> and < require a dotted line.

≥ and ≤ require a solid line.


Quick reminder:
𝑥 = a number is a vertical line.
𝑦 = a number is a horizontal line.
𝒙 = −𝟑

𝒚=𝟐
How do the inequality signs work?
The “equals” sign is replaced by an inequality
sign.

< and ≤ - shade “below” the line.

> and ≥ - shade “above” the line.


Shade the region represented by 𝒙 ≥ −𝟑

Draw the 𝒙 = −𝟑
graph

Solid line
because it is
equal to

Shade the values that are bigger than 3 or “above the line”
Shade the region represented by 𝒚 < 𝟐

Draw the
graph Dotted line
because it’s
𝒚=𝟐 not equal to

Shade the values that are less than 2 or “below the line”
Can you shade the regions given by
these inequalities?
1. 𝑦 ≥ −1
2. 𝑥 < −3
𝒙 = −𝟑

𝒚 = −𝟏
Two to watch out for:
Shade the region satisfied Shade the region satisfied
by −3 < 𝑥 ≤ 1. by −1 ≥ 𝑦 > 2.
A reminder of plotting lines from
their equations:
It is the general equation for a straight line.

𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐

Gradient Where the line


cuts the 𝑦-axis
An example – plot 𝒚 = 𝒙 + 𝟐:

The 𝑦 − 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑝𝑡:
The line cuts the 𝑦-axis
1 at (0,2).
1
The gradient is 1:
𝑅𝑖𝑠𝑒 1
Gradient = = =1
𝑅𝑢𝑛 1

Draw the line.


Another example – plot 𝒚 = 𝟐𝒙 − 𝟑:

The 𝑦 − 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑝𝑡:
The line cuts the 𝑦-axis
at (0,-3).

Find the gradient:


𝑅𝑖𝑠𝑒 2
Gradient = = =2
2 𝑅𝑢𝑛 1

1 Draw the line.


Example:
Shade the region given by 𝒚 ≥ 𝒙 + 𝟐:
Draw the
line

Shade above
the line
Another example:
Shade the region given by 𝒚 < 𝟐𝒙 − 𝟑:
Draw the
line

Shade below
the line
Try shading these regions:
1. 𝑦 ≤ 2𝑥 + 1
2. 𝑦 > 5 − 𝑥
Graphs in the form 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 = 𝒏
These you plot by covering the 𝑥 and the 𝑦 to
find two co-ordinates that you join up.

When 𝑥 = 0, When 𝑦 = 0,
then y = 2 Eg. 2𝑥 + 3𝑦 = 6 then 𝑥 = 3

This gives the points:


(3,0)
(0,2)
More than one inequality:
Shade the region that satisfies these inequalities:
𝑥≥0 Above
Where to
𝑦 > −1 Above
shade?
Draw the
𝑥 + 2𝑦 ≤ 4 Below

lines

Shade the
region
Try this:
Shade the region that satisfies these inequalities:
𝑥 > −2
𝑦≥0
3𝑥 + 𝑦 < 3
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
Describing regions

Learning Objective:
Can I describe regions of graphs using
inequalities?
Grade B
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.
What is this?
This is just the opposite of drawing the graphs and
shading regions.

The graphs will be drawn and a region shaded.

Your job is to give the correct equation including


inequality sign.

Shading above the line: > or ≥


Shading below the line: < or ≤
Two examples
Example 1 Example 2

The region shaded is The region shaded is


represented by the inequality represented by the inequality
𝑥<1 𝑦 ≥ 2𝑥 − 1
Two for you:
Question 1 Question 2

The region shaded is The region shaded is


represented by the inequality represented by the inequality
𝑦 ≥ −2 𝑦 <𝑥+1
More than one line:
The number of inequalities you have to give is
the same as the number of lines drawn.

You need to write down all of them with the


correct inequalities to get all the marks.
One example:
Write the inequalities satisfied by the shaded
region below.

𝒚≥𝟎

𝒚 < 𝟐𝒙 + 𝟒
𝒙≤𝟎
You try this one:
Write the inequalities satisfied by the shaded
region below.
𝒙<𝟒
𝒚 < 𝟐𝒙 + 𝟒

𝒚 ≥ −𝟐
SUCCESS CRITERIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Level Learning outcomes: R A G


D2 I can represent inequalities on a number line.
C3 I can solve inequalities with one inequality sign.
C2 I can solve inequalities with two inequality signs.
B2 I can solve harder inequalities with letters on both
sides.
B1 I can shade regions of a graph given the inequalities.
B1 I can describe a region given on a graph using
inequalities.