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chapter 8 theory of computation automata

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COMPUTABILITY AND

COMPLEXITY

Decidability

• When Turing Machine reaches at some final state it

“HALTS”.

• There are TMs that never halt on some inputs in any

state.

• So distinction between language can be made as:-

– TM that Halts on all input strings.

– Tm that never Halts on some input string.

Halting Problem of Turing Machine

Post Correspondence Problem

Computability

• The Problem of finding out whether a given

problem is “Solvable” by automata reduces to

the evaluation of function on the set of

natural numbers or a given alphabet by

mechanical means.

Primitive Recursion Function

• Consider the function exp(x, y) = xy

• x0 = 1

• x1 = x

• x2 = x . x

• … xy = x. x. x……( y occurences of x)

• xy+1 = x . x y

• The two Rewriting Rules:-

• X0 = 1

• Xy+1 = x. xy

x.0 = 0

X(y+1)= x + x . y

Converting exponential into multiplication or addition.

Or in general we can say complex functions into easy

functions.

• The primitive recursive functions are among the

number-theoretic functions, which are functions from

the natural numbers (nonnegative integers) {0, 1, 2, ...}

to the natural numbers. These functions take n

arguments for some natural number n and are called n-

ary.

• The basic primitive recursive functions are given by

these axioms:

• Constant function or Zero function: The 0-ary constant

function 0 is primitive recursive.

• Successor function: The 1-ary successor function S,

which returns the successor of its argument is

primitive recursive. That is, S(k) = k + 1.

• Projection function: For every n≥1 and each i with

1≤i≤n, the n-ary projection function Pin, which returns

its i-th argument, is primitive recursive.

Cellular of Automata and their Classes

• CA neighborhood is defined as an automaton and its

immediate neighbors. The two most common

neighborhood templates used for a two-dimensional

lattice are:

• Since the automata are using state configurations of a given

template as their input source, the set of all possible

configurations for a given template is isomorphic to the set of

input symbols that the automata need recognize.

conventions are universally employed:

• All FA use the same neighborhood template N .

• As a consequence of 1 and 2, all FA will be recognizing the

exact same set of state configurations. Thus, it its natural to

define all automata to use the same input symbol alphabet ∑.

• Typically, an FA's accepting states is ignored since the

goal of a cellular automaton is not to accept or reject

an input set, but to process an initial configuration of

start states.

• This leaves the last, arguably most important,

ingredient in a CA, the transition function.

Traditionally, the transition function is defined

identically for all FA.

• This effectively makes all FA in a cellular automaton

duplicates of an archetype FA. This criteria is known

as uniformity.

Cellular Automata Classes

• Class I From almost any initial configuration, cellular

automata evolve to a homogeneous state after a finite

number of time steps. Cellular automata in this class

exhibit the maximal possible order on both global and

local scales.

• Class II Cellular automata usually evolve to short

period structures. Local and global order is exhibited,

although not maximal.

• Class III Evolution of cellular automata from almost all

possible initial states leads to aperiodic patterns. After

sufficiently many time steps, the statistical properties

of these patterns are typically the same for almost all

initial configurations. Cellular automata in this class can

exhibit maximal disorder on both global and local

scales.

• Class IV Yields stable, periodic and propagating

structures which can persist over arbitrary lengths of

time. By properly arranging the propagating

structures, final states with any cycle length may be

obtained. The cellular automata in this class exhibit a

great deal of local order.

• For each CA class, Wolfram described the

behavior in terms of dynamical systems theory:

• [Class I]Cellular automata evolve to limit points.

• [Class II]Cellular automata evolve to limit cycles.

• [Class III]Cellular automata evolve to strange

attractors.

• [Class IV]Cellular automata exhibit very long

transient lengths, having no direct analogue in

the field of dynamical systems.

Complexity

• Time Complexity:- Amount of time taken by a

Machine to run input string.

• Space Complexity:- Amount of space or

memory required by machine to implement

input string.

The classes of P and NP problem

Power of Quantum Computation

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