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You are on page 1of 27

T-Test

used to determine if two sets of data are

significantly different from each other

Or

population

T-Test

One-sample t-test

• Used to compare a sample mean with a known population mean or

some other meaningful, fixed value

Independent samples t-test

• Used to compare two means from independent groups

Paired samples t-test

• Used to compare two means that are repeated measures for the

same participants - scores might be repeated across different

measures or across time.

• Used also to compare paired samples, as in a two treatment

randomized block design.

Assumptions

Dependent variables must be:

• Measured at interval or ratio level level of measurement - i.e., needs

to be continuous.

• Normally distributed in all groups of the independent variable.

– Robust to violations of this assumption if sample sizes are large

and approximately equal (> 15 cases per group)

• Have approximately equal variance across all groups of the IV

(homogeneity of variance e.g., tested by Levene's test ).

– If not the p-values for significance tests are inaccurate.

– If the variances are different SPSS has post-hoc tests to adjust for

this.

• Cases represent random samples from the populations and the scores

of the test variable are independent of each other.

– Inaccurate p-values if the independence assumption is violated.

4

One Sample T-Test

• compare a sample mean with a known

population mean

• H0: there is no difference in _____between

____and_____

Review 6 Steps for Significance Testing

1. Set alpha (p level). 4. Find the critical value

2. State hypotheses, Null of the statistic.

and Alternative. 5. State the decision rule.

3. Calculate the test 6. State the conclusion.

statistic (sample

value).

One Sample Exercise (1)

Testing whether light bulbs have a life of 1000 hours

2. State hypotheses.

– Null hypothesis is H0: = 10.5.

– Alternative hypothesis is H1: 10.5.

3. Calculate the test statistic

One Sample T-Test

• Open file: one sample

test.sav

• Go to Analyze

Compare Means to

open dialog One

Sample T-Test

One Sample T-Test

• Enter the dependent variable withadd to Test

Variable(s) box, then type 10.5 value in Test

Value box and click OK

10

Computers print p values rather than critical values.

If p (Sig.) is less than .05, it’s significant.

11

Stating the Conclusion

• State the conclusion. We reject the null hypothesis

that the were drawn from a population in which the

average withadd is 10.5. The difference between our

sample mean (13.86) and the mean of the

population (10.5) is SO different that it is unlikely

that our sample could have been drawn from a

population with an average withadd of 10.5.

paired samples t-test

Procedure

• Click Analyze, click compare means, and click Paired-

Samples T-Test.

Computers print p values rather than critical values.

If p (Sig.) is less than .05, it’s significant.

Example no 2

Person Painfree Placebo Difference

(time in

sec)

1 60 55 5

2 35 20 15

3 70 60 10

4 50 45 5

5 60 60 0

M 55 48 7

Using SPSS for dependent t-test

• Open SPSS

• Open file “SPSS Examples” (same as before)

• Go to:

– “Analyze” then “Compare Means”

– Choose “Paired samples t-test”

– Choose the two IV conditions you are comparing.

Put in “paired variables box.”

Dependent t- SPSS output

Paired Samples Statistics

Std. Error

Mean N Std. Deviation Mean

Pair PAINFREE 55.0000 5 13.2288 5.9161

1 PLACEBO 48.0000 5 16.8077 7.5166

N Correlation Sig.

Pair 1 PAINFREE & PLACEBO 5 .956 .011

Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences

95% Confidence

Interval of the

Std. Error Difference

Mean Std. Deviation Mean Lower Upper t df Sig. (2-tailed)

Pair 1 PAINFREE - PLACEBO 7.0000 5.7009 2.5495 -7.86E-02 14.0786 2.746 4 .052

Independent Sample

T-Test

Ciri Independent Sample

.

or µ1< µ2

or µ1> µ2

What we expected

Contoh

A study was done to compare job stress between two

employee groups. Data were solicited

from a randomly selected sample.

Test for the difference at .05 level of

significance

.05 level significance

SPSS

Analyze

Compare Means

Independent-

Sample T-test

Select test

variable and

then click

Select the

grouping

variable and

click

SPSS

Click on the

Define Groups

Group 1: the

lowest value for

the variable,

Group 2:

Continue and

Ok

Output

Output

greater than .05, we can assume

The two-tail significant for without

that the population variances are

relatively equal. Therefore, we can Additive indicates that p > .05, is

report using the Equal variances not significant

assumed (first row)

Result

Because of H0 fail to reject and no

significant difference between stress and job

location α = .05

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