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Budismul

仏教 ぶっきょう
Budism vs. Shintoism
Spre deosebire de shintoism, budismul
• are un întemeietor
• preocupare majoră pentru salvarea omului
şi viata de după moarte
• este o religie universală – mesajul se
adresează umanităţii, nu unui popor
anume
• introduce o serie de concepte filozofice şi
politice noi.
Originea budismului

• Budismul a apărut în India în sec. V î.e.n


ca un răspuns la transformările religioase
şi sociale din această ţară

• Fondatorul budismului - Gautama


Siddhartha, fiul regelui Gautama şi al
reginei Maya
Ce înseamnă Buddha?
• The term Buddha often specifically designates
Shakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism, born at
Lumbini Park near the modern India – Nepal
border. His pre-enlightenment name was
Siddhartha Gautama. Because he was the
member of a the Shakya clan, he is called
Shakyamuni, or the sage (muni) of the Shakyas.
• The word Buddha means the Enlightened One
and is not a personal name.
Viaţa lui Buddha
• Născut în 650 î.e.n în actualul Nepal
• Crescut până la 29 de ani în bogăţie în interiorul
palatului
• La 29 de ani iese pentru prima dată din palat şi vede
• - un bătrân
– un bolnav
– un om mort
– un înţelept (ascet)
• Pleacă de la palat şi practicăă ascetismul timp de 6 ani
• atinge iluminarea la 35 de ani, pe înserat, devenind
Buddha şi tine prima sa predică
• Moare la 8o de ani, după ce formeaza un grup de
discipoli cărora le transmite învătătura sa
Esenţa doctrinei
• Cele 4 Nobile Adevăruri despre care a vorbit Buddha în prima sa predică

• 1. Nobilul Adevăr al suferinţei „The world is full of suffering.”

• 2.Nobilul Adevăr al cauzei suferinţei


• „the cause of human suffering is undoubtedly found in the thirsts of the
physical body and in the illusions of wordly passion

• 3. Nobilul adevar despre încetarea suferinţei


• „If desires can be removed, then passion will die out and all human suffering
will be ended

• 4. Nobilul adevăr despre calea care duce la încetarea suferinţei


• „In order to enter intro a state where there is no desire and no suffering, one
must follow a certain Path.
Concepte cheie
• Karma – legea cauzei şi efectului

• Samsara – perpetua repetare a naşterii şi


morţii din trecut în viitor

• Nirvana – starea în care orice pasiune şi


dorinţă umană s-a stins prin practici
anumite şi meditaţie
Simbolul budismului - The Wheel
• Similar to the wheel of a cart that keeps revolving, it symbolizes the
Buddha’s teaching as it continues to be spread widely and endlessly. The
eight spokes represent the most important Way of practice.
Răspândirea budismului în lume
• Budismul Mahayana (Great Vehicle) crede
într-o serie de Buddha care sunt egali ca
statut şi întruchipeaza diferite virtuţi
(Shaka, Amida, Daibutsu), s-a transmis in
China, Coreea şi Japonia

• Budismul Theravada (Hinayana) (Way of


the Elders) îl adora pe Budha istoric, s-a
transmis în Tailanda, Cambogia etc.
Zeităţi budiste
• Buddha istoric şi alţi Buddha – au atins
iluminarea
• Bodhisattva (bosatsu) – fiinţe aflate în
pragul iluminarii, pe care o amână pentru
a putea ajuta în continuare oamenii
• Zeii gardieni
• Fiinţe celeste şi fondatori de secte budiste,
preoţi renumiţi
Cosmologia
• Exista 3 lumi
• Lumea fără formă (a Nirvanei)- nu are niciun element material, este
eliberata de ciclul renaşterilor
• Lumea formei – universul atributelor materiale esenţiale, are unele
atribute materiale şi e supusă parţial ciclului renaşterilor
• Lumea dorinţei – lumea materială în care au loc acţiunile – conţine
cele şase destine – şase locuri de reîncarnare (rokudō)
– Paradisurile - aici renasc cei cu karma bună
– Lumea oamenilor - singurul loc unde există capacitatea de analiză şi
aspiraţie către eliberare. E un noroc sa renaşti în această lume
– Lumea titanilor – mândrie, ură, gelozie
– Lumea animalelor – sufera fara sa inteleaga cauza
– Lumea spiritelor înfometate
– Iadurile – locuri de tortură şi pedeapsă
Lumea dorinţei
Cele şase destine – şase locuri de reîncarnare (rokudō)

• Belief in transmigration through the six courses was


made into a view of things that made complete common
sense, so that it lay at the basis of ordinary observations
of life.
Cele şase destine – şase locuri de reîncarnare
(rokudō)

• The rokudo taxonomy consisted of the classification of all beings into six types –
gods, mankind, asuras, animal, hungry ghosts and and the creatures of the hell.

1. gods
2. humans
3. asuras (titans whose killings in the past have given them a ever-warring nature)
4. animals
5. gaki (hungry ghosts – beings with insatiables desires, represented as having
enormous stomachs and needle-thin throats
6. creatures of hell

Each being in the universe is involved in an ongoing journey – death will result in
rebirth, and rebirth always poses the possibility of either progress or slippage to
another location
Buddha
Kamakura Daibutsu
• Daibutsu
Semne distinctive
• Buddha
Bosatsu
Jizō
• Jizō
Kannon bosatu
• Kannon
Templul budist Yakushiji
Yakushi-ji
• Yakushi
Parabole, pilde şi povestiri budiste
• Seven parables from the Lotus Sutra
There are seven important parables in the
Lotus Sutra which are necessary for every
serious student of Mahayana Buddhism to
be familiar with. (Robert K.C. Forman,
The Innate Capacity)
Parabolele din Sutra Lotusului
The Burning House (chapter 3)

• An old, wise man returns from his travels to his large and crumbling mansion to find
that it is on fire and his many sons are trapped inside. He tells them the situation and
calls on them to come out, but they do not understand what the statement "the house
is on fire" means, and they are absorbed with their playthings. So the father tells them
that he has presents outside: goat carts for some, deer carts for others, and bullock
carts for the rest. The children then hurry to come out and ask for the carts, but the
father does not have them. Instead, he gives each child an enormous and
magnificent cart, of a type far beyond any splendor they could have imagined, drawn
by white oxen.

Comentariu:
• In modern terms, it is as if the children had expected to receive push-bikes, motor bikes, and automobiles, and
each was then presented with a starship. They forget their former expectations and joyfully ride on the marvelous
ox carts.

• The Buddha explains that the father in the story is himself; the house is samsara, which is subject to decay and
death and is on fire with the passions; the children are disciples; the promised carts are the various apparent
rewards consequent upon following Buddhist teachings and practices; and the ox carts are true liberation.
Parabolele din Sutra Lotusului
The Concealed Gem

• A poor man visits a rich friend, gets drunk, and passes


out. The rich man, who has to leave on business, gives
his poor man a priceless gem, which he sews into the
lining of his friend's clothes. When the poor man comes
to, he resumes his life as a vagrant, unaware of the
treasure he received during his blackout. Later, he meets
the rich man again, who shows him where the gem is
concealed, and the poor man realizes his wealth.

Comentariu:
• In the story, the rich man is the Buddha; the poor man is
drunk with the passions; and the jewel is the truth about
the Buddha Nature.
Parabolele din Sutra Lotusului

The Lost Heir


• A boy leaves home and wanders from place to place, taking poorly paid jobs
where he can find them. At age fifty, he enters a certain city and sees a
millionaire, who is in fact his father who has moved to this same city and
built himself a large mansion. The son does not recognize his father, but the
father recognizes his son and sends men to capture him. The son is terrified,
and the father orders him released, subsequently sending other men who,
abandoning force, entice him to accept the job of cleaning the latrines in his
father's house, a work that the son finds appropriate to his low sense of self-
worth. Occasionally, the father disguises himself and works alongside his
son. He frequently sends servants to encourage him and gradually
promotes him to chief steward. On his deathbed the father reveals that his
faithful servant is in fact his true son and bequeaths to him all his estate.

Comentariu:
• It is explained that the Buddha is the father; the son is a disciple; wandering
in poverty is living in samsara; the menial jobs are the teachings and
practices of Buddhism; and the inheritance is the Buddha Nature.
Legendă
Tsuki no Usagi

The moon rabbit is also popular in Japan. However, in Japan, he pounds mochi (餅), or rice
cakes in his pestle rather than the elixir of Life. In Japanese the rabbit in the moon is
known as "Tsuki no Usagi". There is a famous story about him in Japan that goes:

"Many years ago, the Old Man of the Moon decided to visit the Earth. He disguised himself as a
beggar and asked Fox (Kitsune), Monkey (Saru), and Rabbit (Usagi) for some food. Monkey
climbed a tree and brought him some fruit. Fox went to a stream, caught a fish, and brought it
back to him. But Rabbit had nothing to offer him but some grass. So he asked the beggar to
build a fire. After the beggar started the fire, Rabbit jumped into it and offered himself as a meal
for the beggar to eat. Quickly the beggar changed back into the Old Man of the Moon and
pulled Rabbit from the fire. He said "You are most kind, Rabbit, but don't do anything to harm
yourself. Since you were the kindest of all to me, I'll take you back to the moon to live with me."
The Old Man carried Rabbit in his arms back to the moon and he is still there to this very day
exactly where the Old Man left him. Just look at the moon in the night sky and the rabbit is
there!“

This story is said to originate from the Buddhist Śaśajâtaka, where Śakra is the Old Man of the
Moon and the monkey, otter, and jackal are the rabbit's companions.
Also in Japan is the mid-autumn, or Jugo-ya, festival. As in China and Korea, people gather to
watch the full moon and children sing a song about the moon rabbit called "Usagi", or "Rabbit".