You are on page 1of 34

Aggregates

By: Aj Ostique
Objectives
• History and introduction
• 2 categories of aggregates
• Based on size
• Based on manufacture
• Based on density
• Physical Properties
• Tests on aggregates
• Classification of Natural Aggregates
History of concrete and aggregates
• People have used sand and stone for foundations for thousands of
years. Significant refinement of the production and use of aggregate
occurred during the Roman Empire, which used aggregate to build its
vast network of roads and aqueducts.
• The invention of concrete, which was essential to architecture
utilizing arches, created an immediate, permanent demand for
construction aggregates.
Ancient Structures
Roman Pantheon
Earliest structure
Definition
• A combination of different sizes and shapes normally of stones.
Maximum size is 75 mm
USES OF AGGREGATES
• As an underlying material for foundations and pavements.
• As an ingredients in Portland cement concrete and asphalt concrete.
Selection of aggregates
• Aggregates shall be hard, durable and clean and free from adherent
coatings and organic matter and shall not contain appreciable amount
of clay.
• Aggregates shall not contain harmful impurities such as iron pyrites,
alkalis, salts, coal, mica, shale or other materials which will affect
hardening and attack reinforcement.
Classification of aggregates
• Based on size:
• Fine aggregates - those aggregates which pass through 4.75 mm sieve or
aggregates with size less than 5 mm.
• Coarse aggregates – those aggregates passing through 75 mm sieve and
entirely retained on 4.75 mm sieve or those aggregates with size greater than
5 mm.
Classification of aggregates
• Based on source or method of manufacture:
• Natural aggregate/uncrushed aggregate- Those from the river beds, river sand
and ex-mines. Normally rounded in shape and have smooth surface texture.
• Manufactured aggregate / crushed aggregate –those obtained by
mechanically crushing rocks, boulders, or cobbles. Normally angular in shape
and have rough surface texture
Based on Density:
• Lightweight aggregate
• Normal-weight aggregate
• Heavyweight aggregate
Lightweight Aggregate
• Lightweight fine aggregate is any aggregate with bulk density less
than 1120kg/m3 and lightweight coarse aggregate is any aggregate
with bulk density less than 880kg/m3.
• They are commonly used as ingredients in the manufacture of
lightweight concrete, for making lightweight masonry blocks (to
improved their thermal and insulating properties and nailing
characteristic), and lightweight floor and roof slabs.
Normal Weight Aggregate
• Crushed stone, gravel and ordinary sand are examples of normal
weight aggregate.
• They are commonly used in manufacture of normal weight concrete,
asphalt concrete and roadway sub-base.
• The average values of sp.gr. For sand and gravel are 2.6 and 2.65
respectively. Bulk density of normal weight aggregate is around 1520
to 1680kg/m3.
Heavyweight aggregate
• Those aggregate with high density and is used primarily in the
manufacture of heavyweight concrete, employed for protection
against nuclear radiation and as bomb shelter.
• The unit weight of heavyweight concrete varies from 2400kg/m3 with
sp.gr range from 4.0 to 4.6.(eg: mineral ores and barite)
Physical properties of aggregates
• Strength
• Hardness
• Toughness
• Durability
• Porosity
• Water absorption
Tests on aggregates
Texture and shapes test
• round shape –usually natural aggregates
• irregular shape- a combination of different shapes
• angular shape- usually of crushed stone
• flaky shape- where the thickness is less than its length and width
• elongated- usually angular where its length is larger than its width and
thickness
• flaky and elongated- its length is larger than its width and its width is larger
than its thickness.
• In terms of surface texture, the aggregates may have a smooth texture, or
coarse/rough texture.
• For production of concrete, the aggregates which have angular shape and
coarse texture are recommended to have high bond strength.
Physical property
• Water absorption test: aggregates absorb water because of their
porosity.
• If all the pores are filled with water the aggregates are said to be
saturated and surface dry.
• If all the water inside the pores are removed by drying, the aggregates
are said to have maximum dry weight.
Classification of Natural Aggregates
• Synthetic Aggregates
• Thermally processed materials, i.e. expanded clays and shale
• Made from industrial by-products, i.e. fly ash
• Recycled Aggregates
• Made from municipal wastes and recycled concrete from demolished buildings and
pavements
Subbase Course
• Subbase is the layer of aggregate material laid on the subgrade
on which the base course layer is located
• Subbase is often the main load-bearing layer of the pavement.
• Its role is to spread the load evenly over the subgrade
Thinkness of Subbase:
• 75 to 100 mm (3 to 4 in) for garden paths
• 100 to 150 mm (4 to 6 in) for driveways and public footpaths
• 150 to 225 mm (6 to 9 in) for heavy used roads
Sieve Designation
Standard, mm Alternate US Standard Mass Percent Passing
50 2” 100
25 1” 55 – 85
9.5 3/8” 40 – 75
0.075 No. 200 0 - 12
• The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be
greater than 0.66 (two thirds) of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm
(No. 40) sieve.
• The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid
limit not greater than 35 and plasticity index not greater than 12 as
determined by AASHTO T 89 and T 90, respectively.
• The coarse portion, retained on a 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve, shall have a
mass percent of wear not exceeding 50 by the Los Angeles Abrasion
Tests as determined by AASHTO T 96.
• The material shall have a soaked CBR value of not less than 25% as
determined by AASHTO T 193. The CBR value shall be obtained at
the maximum dry density and determined by AASHTO T 180, Method
D.
Base Course
•Base Course in pavements is a layer of material in an asphalt roadway,
race track, riding arena, or sporting field that is located directly under
the surface layer.
•Base Course thickness ranges from 100 to 150 mm (4 to 6 in)
Sieve Designation Mass Percent Passing
Standard, mm Alternate US Standard Grading A Grading B
50 2” 100
37.5 1-1/2” - 100
25.0 1” 60 – 85 -
19.0 ¾” - 60 – 85
12.5 ½” 35 – 65 -
4.75 No. 4 20 – 50 30 – 55
0.425 No. 40 5 – 20 8 – 25
0.075 No. 200 0 – 12 2 – 14
Aggregate for Bituminous Pavement
• This item shall consist of a wearing or top course composed of gravel
or crushed aggregate and binder material, whichever is called for in
the Bill of Quantities.
• The aggregate shall consist of hard, durable particles or fragments of
stone or gravel and sand or other fine mineral particles.
• The coarse aggregate material retained on the 2.00 mm (No.10) sieve
shall have a mass percent of wear by the Los Angeles Test (AASHTO T
96) of not more than 45.
• The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No.200) sieve shall not be greater
than two-thirds of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No.40) sieve.
• The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid
limit not greater than 35 and a plasticity index range of 4 to 9, when
tested by AASHTO T 89 and T 90, respectively.
• Materials for gravel surface course and crushed aggregate surface
course shall have a soaked CBR Value of not less than 25% and 80%
respectively as determined by AASHTO T 193. The CBR Value shall be
obtained at the maximum dry density and determined by AASHTO T
180, Method D.