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MATERIAL ENERGY BALANCE

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MATERIAL

ENERGY

BALANCES

Material Balance Equation

Law of conservation of mass: Mass can neither be created nor destro

yed.

General material balance

equation

• Suppose methane, is a component of both input and

output of a process

• If the flow rates of input and output are

found to be different.

Possible explanations are .…

1. methane is leaking

2. methane is consumed or generated in a

reaction

3. methane is accumulating in the process

vessel

4. wrong measurement

General material balance

equation

General material balance

equation

• The process is said to be operating at steady-state when all process varia

bles do not change with time.

• The accumulation term in a balance must equal to zero to ensure that the

amount/mass of material in the process do not change with time

• The generation and consumption terms

are applied only when chemical reaction

is involved

• if there is no reaction,

Input=output

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

STEPS WE NEED TO KNOW !!!!!!

2. Count the unknown

variables on the flow chart, •If ndf ˃ 0, the problem is underspecified, need to provide

[n unknown] more information / equations

3. Count the independent equations than unknowns, redundant and possibly inconsistent

relating them, information.

[n independent equations]

EXAMPLE

One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture containing equal parts by mass of methanol and water

is distilled. Product streams leave the top and the bottom of the distillation column. The flow rate of

1 the bottom stream is measured and found to be 673 kg/hr, and the overhead stream is analyzed and

found to contain 96.0 wt% methanol.

1. Draw and label a flowchart of the process and do the degree of freedom analysis.

2 . Calculate the mass and mole fraction of methanol and the molar flow rates of ethanol and water in

the bottom product stream.

ANSWER : QUESTION 1

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

( CH3OH, H20 )

LABELLED LIKE THIS !!

ANSWER : QUESTION 2 CALCULATION BEGIN ….

1. OVERALL BALANCE : 4. MOLAR FLOWRATE OF METHANOL

1 1000 = m + 673

m = 1000 – 673

m = 327 kg/hr

5. MOLAR FLOWRATE OF WATER

2. METHANOL BALANCE

500 = 673x + 0.960(327)

500 = 673x + 313.92 5. MOLE FRACTION OF METHANOL

673x = 500 – 313.92

673x = 186.08

X = 0.276 kg CH3OH / kg

3. WATER BALANCE

1 – x = H2O

H2O = 1 – 0.276

H2O = 0.274 kg H2O / kg

FLOWCHART SCALING AND BASIS OF

CALCULATION

The procedure of changing the values of all stream amounts or flow rates by a proportional amount

while leaving the stream compositions unchanged is referred to as scaling the flow chart.

Scaling up: if the final stream quantities are larger than the original quantities,

Process and the amount or flow rate

of one of the process streams is n1.

the amount or flow rate of this stream n2

by multiplying all stream amounts or

flow rates by the ratio n2/n1.

FLOWCHART SCALING AND BASIS OF

CALCULATION

It is desired to achieve the same separation with a continuous feed of 1250 Ib – moles/h. Scale the

Flowchart accordingly.

2.

3.

FLOWCHART SCALING AND BASIS OF

CALCULATION

BEFORE SCALING AFTER SCALING

MATERIAL BALANCE ON SINGLE

UNIT PROCESS

General Procedure for Material Balance Calculations

1. Choose as a basis of calculations an amount or flow rate of one of the process stream

s

2. Draw a flowchart of the process. Include all the given variables on the chart and lab

el the unknown stream variables on the chart

3. Write the expressions for the quantities requested in problem statement

4. Convert all mass and molar unit quantities to one basis

5. Do the degree of freedom analysis. For any given information that has not been used

in labeling the flowchart, translate it into equations in terms of the unknown variabl

es

6. If nDF = 0, write material balance equations in an order such that those involve the fe

west unknowns are written first

7. Solve the equations and calculate the additional quantities requested in the problem

statement

EXAMPLE SINGLE UNIT

PROCESS

1. An aqueous solution of NaOH contains 20% NaOH by mass. It

is desired to produce an 8% NaOH solution by diluting a

stream of 20% solution with a stream of pure water.

product solution/kg feed solution ].

CALCULATION BEGIN

Ratio requested in problem statement.

1. OVERALL BALANCE :

100 + m1 = m2

m1 = m2 – 100

2. NaOH BALANCE

(100)(0.20) = 0.08m2

20 = 0.08m2

m2 = 250 kg NaOH

m1 = m2 – 100

m1 = 250 – 100

m1 = 150 kg H2O

Thank you

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