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CHAPTER 3.4 & 3.

MATERIAL
ENERGY
BALANCES
Material Balance Equation
Law of conservation of mass: Mass can neither be created nor destro
yed.

Total MASS input = Total MASS output


General material balance
equation
• Suppose methane, is a component of both input and
output of a process
• If the flow rates of input and output are
found to be different.
Possible explanations are .…
1. methane is leaking
2. methane is consumed or generated in a
reaction
3. methane is accumulating in the process
vessel
4. wrong measurement
General material balance
equation
General material balance
equation
• The process is said to be operating at steady-state when all process varia
bles do not change with time.
• The accumulation term in a balance must equal to zero to ensure that the
amount/mass of material in the process do not change with time

STEADY STATE means ACCUMULATION = 0

Input + generation - output - consumption = 0

Input + generation = output + consumption


• The generation and consumption terms
are applied only when chemical reaction
is involved
• if there is no reaction,
Input=output
DEGREE OF FREEDOM
STEPS WE NEED TO KNOW !!!!!!

1. Draw and label the flowchart 4. Ndf = n unknowns – n independ eqns

•If ndf = 0, the problem is solvable


2. Count the unknown
variables on the flow chart, •If ndf ˃ 0, the problem is underspecified, need to provide
[n unknown] more information / equations

•If ndf ˂ 0, the problem is over specified, more equations


3. Count the independent equations than unknowns, redundant and possibly inconsistent
relating them, information.
[n independent equations]
EXAMPLE
One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture containing equal parts by mass of methanol and water
is distilled. Product streams leave the top and the bottom of the distillation column. The flow rate of
1 the bottom stream is measured and found to be 673 kg/hr, and the overhead stream is analyzed and
found to contain 96.0 wt% methanol.

1. Draw and label a flowchart of the process and do the degree of freedom analysis.
2 . Calculate the mass and mole fraction of methanol and the molar flow rates of ethanol and water in
the bottom product stream.

ANSWER : QUESTION 1
DEGREE OF FREEDOM

( CH3OH, H20 )

DRAW FLOWCHART AND


LABELLED LIKE THIS !!
ANSWER : QUESTION 2 CALCULATION BEGIN ….
1. OVERALL BALANCE : 4. MOLAR FLOWRATE OF METHANOL
1 1000 = m + 673
m = 1000 – 673
m = 327 kg/hr
5. MOLAR FLOWRATE OF WATER
2. METHANOL BALANCE

(1000)(0.50) = (673)(X) + (m)(0.960)


500 = 673x + 0.960(327)
500 = 673x + 313.92 5. MOLE FRACTION OF METHANOL
673x = 500 – 313.92
673x = 186.08
X = 0.276 kg CH3OH / kg

3. WATER BALANCE

1 – x = H2O
H2O = 1 – 0.276
H2O = 0.274 kg H2O / kg
FLOWCHART SCALING AND BASIS OF
CALCULATION
The procedure of changing the values of all stream amounts or flow rates by a proportional amount
while leaving the stream compositions unchanged is referred to as scaling the flow chart.

Scaling up: if the final stream quantities are larger than the original quantities,

Scaling down: if they are smaller.

Suppose you have balanced a


Process and the amount or flow rate
of one of the process streams is n1.

You can scale the flowchart to make


the amount or flow rate of this stream n2
by multiplying all stream amounts or
flow rates by the ratio n2/n1.
FLOWCHART SCALING AND BASIS OF
CALCULATION
It is desired to achieve the same separation with a continuous feed of 1250 Ib – moles/h. Scale the
Flowchart accordingly.

The scale factor is : 1.

2.

3.
FLOWCHART SCALING AND BASIS OF
CALCULATION
BEFORE SCALING AFTER SCALING
MATERIAL BALANCE ON SINGLE
UNIT PROCESS
General Procedure for Material Balance Calculations

1. Choose as a basis of calculations an amount or flow rate of one of the process stream
s
2. Draw a flowchart of the process. Include all the given variables on the chart and lab
el the unknown stream variables on the chart
3. Write the expressions for the quantities requested in problem statement
4. Convert all mass and molar unit quantities to one basis
5. Do the degree of freedom analysis. For any given information that has not been used
in labeling the flowchart, translate it into equations in terms of the unknown variabl
es
6. If nDF = 0, write material balance equations in an order such that those involve the fe
west unknowns are written first
7. Solve the equations and calculate the additional quantities requested in the problem
statement
EXAMPLE SINGLE UNIT
PROCESS
1. An aqueous solution of NaOH contains 20% NaOH by mass. It
is desired to produce an 8% NaOH solution by diluting a
stream of 20% solution with a stream of pure water.

Calculate the ratios [ liters H2O/kg feed solution ] and [ kg


product solution/kg feed solution ].
CALCULATION BEGIN
Ratio requested in problem statement.
1. OVERALL BALANCE :

100 + m1 = m2
m1 = m2 – 100

2. NaOH BALANCE

(100)(0.20) = 0.08m2
20 = 0.08m2
m2 = 250 kg NaOH

3. TOTAL MASS BALANCE

m1 = m2 – 100
m1 = 250 – 100
m1 = 150 kg H2O
Thank you