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You are on page 1of 10

Fnormal

p lim/

A A

A

The pressure P at a point in a fluid in equilibrium is the

same in all directions.

Units

1 Pa 1 N / m2

1 kPa 103 N / m2

1 bar 105 N / m2

1 MPa 106 N / m2

1 bar 100 kPa 0.1MPa

1 kgf/cm2 =??bar =0.9807bar

1 psi=lbf/in2

Absolute, gage (gauge), and vacuum pressures

Pgage=Pabs-Patm

Pvacuum =Patm-Pabs

Pressure Measurement

Manometer

Bourdon Gage (French engineer and inventor Eugene Bourdon (1808–1884))

•When fluid under pressure fills the tube,

the elliptical section tends to become

circular, and the tube straightens. This

motion is transmitted by the mechanism

to the pointer. By calibrating the deflection

of the pointer for known pressures, a

graduated scale can be determined from

which any applied pressure can be read in

suitable units.

•Bourdon tube measures the pressure

relative to the pressure of the

surroundings existing at the instrument.

• Accordingly, the dial reads zero when the

inside and outside of the tube are at the

same pressure.

Pressure Transducers

Piezoelectric transducers: An

important class of sensors utilize

the piezoelectric effect: A charge is

generated within certain solid

materials (crystalline substance)

when they are deformed.

Another important type of sensor

employs a diaphragm that deflects

when a force is applied, altering an

inductance, resistance, or

capacitance.

Fig. shows a tank within a tank, each containing air. The absolute

pressure in tank A is 267.7 kPa. Pressure gage A is located inside tank

B and reads 140 kPa. The U tube manometer connected to tank B

contains mercury. Using data on the diagram, determine the

absolute pressure inside tank B, in kPa, and the column length L , in

cm.

PB=PA-Pg=(267.7-140.0)

=127.7kPa

PB-Patm=Lg=26.7kPa

L=20cm

Two cylinders are connected by a piston, as shown in Fig. Cylinder

A is used as a hydraulic lift and pumped up to 500 kPa. The piston

mass is 25 kg, and there is standard gravity. What is the gas

pressure in cylinder B?

Force Balance:

PBAB+mpg+P0(AA-AB)=PAAA

AA=0.00785m2; AB=0.000491m2

PB=6.0MPa

A 5-kg piston in a cylinder with diameter of 100 mm is loaded with a

linear spring and the outside atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa, as

shown in Fig. The spring exerts no force on the piston when it is at

the bottom of the cylinder, and for the state shown, the pressure is

400 kPa with volume 0.4 L. The valve is opened to let some air in,

causing the piston to rise 2 cm. Find the new pressure.

Force Balance:

PAp=P0Ap+mpg+k(x-x0)+Fext

P=A+B(V-V0) if Fext=0

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