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PARALLEL

PIPES
INTRODUCTION
 The most common method to transport fluids from one
point to another, is to drive it through a pipe system. The
circular section pipes are the most frequent, this kind of
pipe offers not only greater structural strength but also a
greater cross section for the same outer perimeter than
any other form. The pipes in parallel are formed by pipes
that are arranged in such a way, that their ends are
common. The liquid circulates through one of them and
then through the others.
 A system of pipes in parallel is formed by a set of pipes
that are born in a same initial point and end in a single
end point. At certain points of the pipeline, water
discharges or outflows may occur so that the flow rate is
not the same throughout the entire pipeline. These
points are called consumption nodes. But it is also a knot
where the characteristics of the duct change, such as its
diameter or its roughness, so there is no consumption.
For a general system of n pipes in parallel it is verified that:
• The total flow of the system, is the sum of the individual flows of each of the
pipes (continuity equation).

• The total load loss of the system is equal to the head loss of each of the pipes
Where hfi and hmi are the primary and secondary losses in each of the pipes of
the system.
 Where hfi and hmi are the primary and secondary losses in each of
the pipes of the system.
 Primary load loss is understood as the loss of load produced in the
pipeline. Secondary load loss (local load loss) is understood as the
loss of load produced in an accessory that interrupts the pipe. The
accessories can be couplings, nipples, elbows, keys or valves, "T",
extensions (gradual or sudden), reductions (gradual or sudden),
unions, etc. Due to the value of this magnitude, it is recommended
that this loss be considered in the calculation of the pressure drop of
the pipe.
FOR EXAMPLE: System of 3 pipes in
parallel between A and B
The resolution of piping systems in parallel is based on the following:
• Considering the local load losses in accessories (calculations are
very cumbersome).
• Not considering these losses (it is assumed that these correspond
to a certain percentage of the length of the pipe, in this way the
length of the pipe is net and greater than the actual length of the
pipe)
THE DARCY-WEISBACH
EQUATION
The Darcy-Weisbach equation is an equation widely used in hydraulics. Allows the
calculation of the load loss due to friction inside a full pipe.
The general form of the Darcy-Weisbach equation is:
Where:
• HF = load loss due to friction. (m.c.l [meters of column
of liquid])
• F = Darcy's friction factor. (adimensional)
• L = length of the pipe. (m)
• D = diameter of the pipe. (m)
• V = average velocity of the fluid. (m / s)
• g = acceleration of gravity ≈ 9.80665 m / s².2
EXAMPLE: A fluid is transported in a pipeline 1000 m long and 45
cm in diameter. It has been determined that the pipe friction
factor is 0.03 and that the average flow velocity is 2.5 m / s, if the
gravity value is assumed to be 9.81 m / s, calculate the loss by
friction.
CONCLUSION

 We could see a small part of the pipes in parallel and we could


observe some recommendations and equations to find the
total flow. In this report we studied the behavior of pipes
working in parallel in order to analyze the losses in these, as well
as the influence of physical characteristics on the distribution of
the flows between them.