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PIPES

INTRODUCTION

The most common method to transport fluids from one

point to another, is to drive it through a pipe system. The

circular section pipes are the most frequent, this kind of

pipe offers not only greater structural strength but also a

greater cross section for the same outer perimeter than

any other form. The pipes in parallel are formed by pipes

that are arranged in such a way, that their ends are

common. The liquid circulates through one of them and

then through the others.

A system of pipes in parallel is formed by a set of pipes

that are born in a same initial point and end in a single

end point. At certain points of the pipeline, water

discharges or outflows may occur so that the flow rate is

not the same throughout the entire pipeline. These

points are called consumption nodes. But it is also a knot

where the characteristics of the duct change, such as its

diameter or its roughness, so there is no consumption.

For a general system of n pipes in parallel it is verified that:

• The total flow of the system, is the sum of the individual flows of each of the

pipes (continuity equation).

• The total load loss of the system is equal to the head loss of each of the pipes

Where hfi and hmi are the primary and secondary losses in each of the pipes of

the system.

Where hfi and hmi are the primary and secondary losses in each of

the pipes of the system.

Primary load loss is understood as the loss of load produced in the

pipeline. Secondary load loss (local load loss) is understood as the

loss of load produced in an accessory that interrupts the pipe. The

accessories can be couplings, nipples, elbows, keys or valves, "T",

extensions (gradual or sudden), reductions (gradual or sudden),

unions, etc. Due to the value of this magnitude, it is recommended

that this loss be considered in the calculation of the pressure drop of

the pipe.

FOR EXAMPLE: System of 3 pipes in

parallel between A and B

The resolution of piping systems in parallel is based on the following:

• Considering the local load losses in accessories (calculations are

very cumbersome).

• Not considering these losses (it is assumed that these correspond

to a certain percentage of the length of the pipe, in this way the

length of the pipe is net and greater than the actual length of the

pipe)

THE DARCY-WEISBACH

EQUATION

The Darcy-Weisbach equation is an equation widely used in hydraulics. Allows the

calculation of the load loss due to friction inside a full pipe.

The general form of the Darcy-Weisbach equation is:

Where:

• HF = load loss due to friction. (m.c.l [meters of column

of liquid])

• F = Darcy's friction factor. (adimensional)

• L = length of the pipe. (m)

• D = diameter of the pipe. (m)

• V = average velocity of the fluid. (m / s)

• g = acceleration of gravity ≈ 9.80665 m / s².2

EXAMPLE: A fluid is transported in a pipeline 1000 m long and 45

cm in diameter. It has been determined that the pipe friction

factor is 0.03 and that the average flow velocity is 2.5 m / s, if the

gravity value is assumed to be 9.81 m / s, calculate the loss by

friction.

CONCLUSION

observe some recommendations and equations to find the

total flow. In this report we studied the behavior of pipes

working in parallel in order to analyze the losses in these, as well

as the influence of physical characteristics on the distribution of

the flows between them.

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