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AGGREGATES

GROUP 1 | MEMBERS:
ALEJO, Christian Allen J.
AQUINO, Laurean Lainsley D.
BENITEZ, Pauline A.
BENOSA, Audriel L.
BERNABE, Michael Eriko A.
CONTENT OF THE REPORT
• AGGREGATES
• Definition
• Uses
• Main Classification
• Classification according to size, shape, and unit weight
• Test of Aggregation
• Unit Weight
• Specific Gravity
• Absorption
CONTENT OF THE REPORT
• Moisture Content
• Sieve Analysis
• Fineness Modulus
• Abrasion Test
• Wash Test
• Size Gradation
• Size Analysis
• Maximum Aggregate Size
• Grading Curves
• Other grading requirements
AGGREGATES
• A granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed
stone, crushed hydraulic-cement concrete, or iron
blast-furnace slag, used with a hydraulic
cementing medium to produce either concrete or
mortar
• the most mined materials in the world
• serves as reinforcement to add strength to the
overall composite material

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


AGGREGATES

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


TYPES OF AGGREGATES
 Coarse Aggregate

 Fine Aggregate

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


COARSE AGGREGATE
• those particles that are predominantly retained on
the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


FINE AGGREGATE
• those particles passing the 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) sieve,
almost entirely passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve,
and predominantly retained on the 75 µm (No.
200) sieve

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


USES OF AGGREGATES
Concrete
 a mixture of aggregates, cement and water. The
purpose of the aggregates within this mixture is to
provide a rigid skeletal structure and to reduce the
space occupied by the cement paste.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


USES OF AGGREGATES
Concrete

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


USES OF AGGREGATES
Asphalt and Roadstone
Will require some variation in the material, it is
useful to look at the basic structure of roads
because they represent the bulk of the aggregate
use in this category.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


USES OF AGGREGATES
Mortar
 consists of sand, cement and water. In some
circumstances lime may also be added, together
with admixtures (chemicals to control setting and
workability) and/or pigments if required. There
are also types of mortar that can be used as
internal plasters but these should not be confused
with the more normally used, gypsum based,
plasters.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.
USES OF AGGREGATES
Mortar

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


USES OF AGGREGATES
Railway Ballast
 very tough aggregate is needed to support railway
weight and distribute the load of a passing train to
avoid serious damage to the ground, or other
structures underneath.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


USES OF AGGREGATES
Railway Ballast

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


Main Classification
Lightweight Aggregates
 Contains aggregate that is natural or synthetic
which weighs less than 1100 kg/m3;
 Lightweight is due to the cellular or high internal
porous microstructure, which gives this type of
aggregate a low bulk specific gravity; and
 Have high absorption values, which requires a
modified approach to concrete proportioning.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.
Main Classification
Normal-weight Aggregates
 Are obtained by draining riverbeds or mining and
crunching formational material;
 Generally weighs about 144 lb/ft3;

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


Main Classification
Heavyweight Aggregates
 Are natural or synthetic which typically weigh
more than 2080 kg/m3 and can range up to
4485 kg/m3;
 Most commonly used for radiation shielding,
counterweights, and other applications where a
high mass to volume ratio is desired.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENITEZ, PAULINE A.


CLASSIFICATION OF
AGGREGATES
(SHAPE, SIZE, UNIT
WEIGHT)
Aquino, Laurean Lainsley D.
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SIZE
Fine Aggregate
 It is the aggregate most of which passes No.
4 (4.75mm) sieve and contains only coarser
as is permitted by specification. And
predominately retained on the No. 200 sieve.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SIZE
Natural Sand
- It is the aggregate resulting from the natural
disintegration of which has been deposited by
streams or glacial agencies.
Crushed Stone Sand
- It is the fine aggregate produced by crushing
hard stone.
Crushed Gravel Sand
- It is fine aggregate produced by crushing
natural grave. AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SIZE
Coarse Aggregate
 It is the aggregate most of which is retained on
4.75 mm IS sieve and contains only so much
finer material as is permitted by specification.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SIZE
Uncrushed Gravel or Stone
- It results from natural disintegration of rock.
Crushed Gravel or Stone
- It results from crushing of gravel or hard
stone; and

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SIZE
Partially Crushed Gravel or Stone
- It is a product of the blending of the above
two aggregate.
All in Aggregate
- It is the aggregate composed of both fine
aggregate and coarse aggregate.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


ALL IN AGGREGATE

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


ACCORDING TO SHAPE
• Rounded Aggregate
- The aggregate with rounded shape has the
minimum percentage of voids ranging from 32-
33%.
- It gives minimum ratio of surface area to given
volume and hence requires minimum water for
lubrication.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


ACCORDING TO SHAPE
• Irregular or Partly Rounded Aggregate
- Has higher percentage of voids ranging from 35
to 37%;
- It gives lesser workability than rounded aggregate
for the given water content.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


ACCORDING TO SHAPE
• Angular Aggregate
- Has the maximum percentage of void ranging
from 38 to 45%;
- It requires more water for lubrication and hence
it gives least workability for the given water
cement ratio.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.
ACCORDING TO SHAPE
• Flaky Aggregate
- When its least dimension is less than 3/5th (or
60%) of its mean dimension;
- Mean dimension is the average size through
which the particles pass and the sieve size on
which these are retained.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


ACCORDING TO SHAPE
• Elongated Aggregate
- When its length is greater than 180% of its mean dimension.
• Flaky and Elongated Aggregate
- Particles in excess of 10 to 15% are not desirable in dimension.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.
TEST OF AGGREGATES: (UNIT WEIGHT)
• The unit weight is defined as weight per unit bulk
volume for bulk aggregates
• Besides the pores inside each aggregate, the bulk
volume also includes the space among the collection
of particles.
• According to the weight measured at different
conditions, the unit weight can be divided into UW
(SSD) and UW (OD).

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.


• Moisture Conditions
• SSD = Saturated Surface Dry
• In this situation the pores of the aggregate are
fully filled with water and the surface is dry. This
condition can be obtained by immersion in water
for 24 hours following by drying of the surface
with wet cloth.
• OD = Oven Dry
• This condition is obtained by keeping aggregates
at temperature of 1100 C for a period of time
long enough to reach a constant weight.
EQUATIONS FOR UNIT WEIGHT
𝑊𝑆𝑆𝐷
𝑈𝑊 𝑆𝑆𝐷 =
𝑉𝑆𝑂𝐿𝐼𝐷 + 𝑉𝑃𝑂𝑅𝐸𝑆 + 𝑉𝑆𝑃𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑁𝐺

OR

𝑊𝑂𝐷
𝑈𝑊 𝑂𝐷 =
𝑉𝑆𝑂𝐿𝐼𝐷 + 𝑉𝑃𝑂𝑅𝐸𝑆 + 𝑉𝑆𝑃𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑁𝐺

The percentage of spacing (voids) among the aggregates can be calculated as

𝐵𝐷−𝑈𝑊
𝑆𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑉𝑜𝑖𝑑 = ∗ 100%AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | AQUINO, LAUREAN LAINSLEY D.
𝐵𝐷
TEST OF AGGREGATE
Unit Weight
The density of sand and gravel aggregates
depends on:
Grain size
Moisture content
How tightly the grains are bound
Sand with Gravel, dry 1650 kg/m3
Sand with Gravel, wet 2020 kg/m3

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.


AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
• Aggregate Specific Gravity Test
• Oven-dry
• Saturated Surface-dry
• Submerged in water

• Needed to determine weight to volume


relationships and to calculate various volume-
related quantities such as voids in mineral
aggregate (VMA) and voids filled by asphalt (VFA).

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.


AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
ABSORPTION
• Water Absorption Test
• Absorption – the increase in the mass of
aggregate due to water being absorbed into the
pores of the material, but not including water
adhering to the outside surface of the particles.
• This test helps to determine the water absorption
of coarse aggregates.
• Absorption values are used to calculate the
change in the mass of an aggregate.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
MOISTURE CONTENT
Four Moisture State
• Oven-dry (OD) - All moisture is removed from
the aggregate by heating in an oven at 105 oC
to constant weight (overnight heating usually
is sufficient). All pores are empty;
• Air-dry (AD) - All moisture removed from
surface, but internal pores partially full;

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.


MOISTURE CONTENT
• Saturated-surface-dry (SSD) - All pores filled
with water, but no film of water on the
surface; and
• Wet - All pores completely filled with water
with a film on the surface.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.


AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BENOSA, AUDRIEL L.
SIEVE ANALYSIS
 A sieve analysis (or gradation test) is a practice
or procedure used to assess the particle size
distibution (also called gradation) of a granular
material.
 This is done by sieving the material

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.


AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.
FINENESS MODULUS
 Fineness modulus is generally used to get an
idea of how coarse or fine the aggregate is.
More fineness modulus value indicates that the
aggregate is coarser and small value of fineness
modulus indicates that the aggregate is finer.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.


• W=weight of the sample
• W1=weight of the residue

• Note: fineness should not be less than 78%

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.


ABRASION TEST
• This test helps to determine the abrasion value of
coarse aggregates; and

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.


• The apparatus used in this test are Los Angles
abrasion testing machine, IS Sieve of size –
1.7mm, Abrasive charge – 12 nos. cast iron or
steel spheres approximately 48mm dia. and each
weighing between 390 and 445g ensuring that
the total weight of charge is 5000 +25g and Oven.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.
WASH TEST
 It is process of washing and sieving the
aggregates simultaneously.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.


Procedure:
1. Add enough water to cover the material in the
pan approximately 2 to 3 inches. Using a spatula
or spoon vigorously stir the aggregate and water.
2. Pour (decant) the water through the protective
sieve and the No. 200 sieve
3. Keep the bottom corner of the pan over the guard
sieve and No. 200 sieve so all the water being
poured off (decanted) passes through these
sieves. Repeat the washing process as many
times as necessary until the water is clear.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.
Size Gradation
• One of the most influential aggregate characteristics in
determining how it will perform as a pavement material;
• In HMA, gradation helps determine almost every
important property including stiffness, stability, durability,
permeability, workability, fatigue resistance, frictional
resistance and moisture susceptibility; and

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.


• In PCC, gradation helps determine durability,
porosity, workability, cement and water
requirements, strength, and shrinkage.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | BERNABE, MICHAEL ERIKO A.


SIZE GRADATION

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.
Why should we
grade?

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


Minimize voids

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


Why should we
want to
minimize voids?

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


workability

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


underfilling will
result in
entrapped air

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


corrosion of
reinforcements

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


SIEVE ANALYSIS

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


SIEVE ANALYSIS
• A known weight of material is placed on the top of
the nested sieves
• The top sieve has the largest opening and
decreases down to the bottom sieve
• Shaken in a period of time
• The material in each sieve is weighed

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


Maximum and
Maximum
Nominal size

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


Percent Passing

3/4" : 100%

1/2" : 95%

3/8" : 89%

#4 : 63%

#8 : 39%

CT202
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.
HOW TO DECIDE MAXIMUM SIZE
OF COARSE AGGREGATE TO BE
USED IN CONCRETE?

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


• Larger size – lesser cement
• Lesser cement –lesser cost
• Larger size-lesser W-C ratio-greater strength

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


CONDITIONS THAT DECIDE MAXIMUM
SIZE OF COARSE AGGREGATE TO BE
USED IN CONCRETE
• It should not be more than one fourth of the
minimum thickness of the member provided that the
concrete can be placed without difficulty so as to
surround all reinforcement thoroughly and fill the
corner of the form.
• For heavily reinforced concrete members the nominal
maximum size of the aggregate should be usually
restricted to 6 mm less than the minimum clear
distance between the main bar or 5 mm less than the
minimum cover to the reinforcement, whichever is
less.
AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.
• Where the reinforcement is widely spaced as in solid
slabs, limitations of the size of the aggregate may not
be so important and the nominal maximum size may
sometime be as great as or greater than the
maximum cover except where porous aggregate are
used.
• For reinforced concrete work aggregates having a
maximum size of 20 mm are generally considered
satisfactory.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


Grading Curves

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


FULLER AND THOMPSON’S
EQUATION

Where:
 P = percent finer than an aggregate size
 d = aggregate size being considered
 D = maximum aggregate size
 n = parameter which adjusts curve for fineness or
coarseness (for maximum particle density n ≈ 0.5
according to Fuller and Thompson)

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.


Gradation Types
 Dense or well-graded. Refers to a gradation that
is near the FHWA’s 0.45 power curve for
maximum density. The most common HMA mix
designs in the U.S. tend to use dense graded
aggregate. Typical gradations are near the 0.45
power curve but not right on it. Generally, a true
maximum density gradation (exactly on the 0.45
power curve) would result in unacceptably low
VMA.
 Gap graded. Refers to a gradation that contains
only a small percentage of aggregate
particles in the mid-size range.
 Open graded. Refers to a gradation that
contains only a small percentage of aggregate
particles in the small range.
 Uniformly graded. Refers to a gradation that
contains most of the particles in a very narrow
size range.

AGGREGATES | GROUP 1 | ALEJO, CHRISTIAN ALLEN J.