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INTEGRATION

Integration is the reverse of


differentiation
1.  a dx = ax + c, where a is constant
Examples:

1.  1 dx = x + c
2.  2 dx = 2x + c
3.  -3 dx = -3x + c
1 1
4. dx  x  c
2 2
n 1
x
2. x dx 
n
 c, where n is an integer, n  1
n 1
Examples:
11
x 1 2
1. xdx  c  x c
11 2
2 1
x 1 3
2. x dx 
2
c  x c
2 1 3
1
3. 2 dx  x dx  c
2

x 2 1 1
x x 1
 c  c   c
 2 1 1 x
n 1
ax
3. ax dx 
n
 c , where a is a constant and n
n 1 is an integer, n  1

Examples:
2 x11 2 2
1. 2 xdx   c  x  c  x2  c
11 2
2 1
4 4 3
2.  4 x dx  
2
c   x c
2 1 3
3
3. 3 dx  3x 3 dx
x
3x 31 3x 2 3
 c  c   2 c
 3 1 2 2x
Integrals of algebraic expressions

 [ f ( x )  g ( x )]dx   f ( x)dx   g ( x) dx
Examples:
1.  a dx = ax + c
1. (3x  4 x)dx
3
2. x n dx 
x n 1
c
n 1
    dx   4 xdx
3 3
(3 x 4 x ) dx 3 x ax n 1
3. ax dx 
n
c
n 1
3 x 31 4 x 11
  c
3 1 11
3x 4 4x 2
  c
4 2
3 4
 x  2x 2  c
4
1.  a dx = ax + c
2. (3x  2) dx
2
n 1
x
2. x n dx  c
  dx   (3x  2)(3x  2)dx
2
(3 x 2) n 1
n 1
ax
  (9 x  6 x  6 x  4)dx
2 3. ax n dx  c
n 1

  (9 x 2  12 x  4)dx

  9 x dx   12 xdx   4dx
2

9 x 21 12 x11
   4x  c
2 1 11
9 x 3 12 x 2
   4x  c
3 2
 3x  6 x  4 x  c
3 2
4  5x 2 1.  a dx = ax + c
3. dx n 1
3 x
4  5x 2 4 5x 2 2. x n dx  c
n 1
 3 dx   ( 3  3 )dx ax n 1

4 5 2 3. ax n dx  c
  dx  x dx n 1
3 3
4 5 x 21
 x ( )c
3 3 2 1
4 5 x3
 x ( )c
3 3 3
4 5 3
 x x c
3 9
2 x 3  5x 2 1.  a dx = ax + c
4. 5
dx n 1
3x
x
2 x  5x 2 2 x 3 5x 2 2. x n dx  c
n 1
 x 5 dx   ( x 5  x 5 )dx ax n 1

2 5 3. ax n dx  c
  ( 2  3 )dx n 1
x x
  (2 x 2  5 x 3 )dx
2 1 31
2x 5x
  c
 2 1  3 1
2 x 1 5 x 2
  c
1 2
2 5
   2 c
x 2x
Finding the constant of integration, c
dy 1.  a dx = ax + c
Given that  3x  4 x  2 and y = 3 when x = 1
2

dx x n 1
2. x dx 
n
c
Solution: n 1
n 1
ax
dy 3. ax n dx  c
 3x 2  4 x  2 n 1
dx
y   (3x 2  4 x  2)dx
When x = 1, y = 3
y   3x dx   4 xdx   2dx
2

3  13  2(12 )  2(1)  c
3x 21 4 x11
y   2x  c c=2
2 1 11
3x 3 4x 2
y   2x  c
3 2
y  x 3  2x 2  2x  c
Integrals of expressions of the form ( ax  b) n

n 1
(ax  b)
 (ax  b) dx  a(n  1)  c
n

1. ( 2 x  7) 5 dx
51
( 2 x  7)
  dx  c
5
( 2 x 7)
2(5  1)
( 2 x  7) 6
 c
12
1
2. dx
(5 x  8) 4

1
 
4
dx  (5 x  8) dx
(5 x  8) 4

(5x  8) 41 1
 c  c
5(4  1) 15(5 x  8) 3

(5 x  8) 3
 c
 15