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differentiation

1. a dx = ax + c, where a is constant

Examples:

1. 1 dx = x + c

2. 2 dx = 2x + c

3. -3 dx = -3x + c

1 1

4. dx x c

2 2

n 1

x

2. x dx

n

c, where n is an integer, n 1

n 1

Examples:

11

x 1 2

1. xdx c x c

11 2

2 1

x 1 3

2. x dx

2

c x c

2 1 3

1

3. 2 dx x dx c

2

x 2 1 1

x x 1

c c c

2 1 1 x

n 1

ax

3. ax dx

n

c , where a is a constant and n

n 1 is an integer, n 1

Examples:

2 x11 2 2

1. 2 xdx c x c x2 c

11 2

2 1

4 4 3

2. 4 x dx

2

c x c

2 1 3

3

3. 3 dx 3x 3 dx

x

3x 31 3x 2 3

c c 2 c

3 1 2 2x

Integrals of algebraic expressions

[ f ( x ) g ( x )]dx f ( x)dx g ( x) dx

Examples:

1. a dx = ax + c

1. (3x 4 x)dx

3

2. x n dx

x n 1

c

n 1

dx 4 xdx

3 3

(3 x 4 x ) dx 3 x ax n 1

3. ax dx

n

c

n 1

3 x 31 4 x 11

c

3 1 11

3x 4 4x 2

c

4 2

3 4

x 2x 2 c

4

1. a dx = ax + c

2. (3x 2) dx

2

n 1

x

2. x n dx c

dx (3x 2)(3x 2)dx

2

(3 x 2) n 1

n 1

ax

(9 x 6 x 6 x 4)dx

2 3. ax n dx c

n 1

(9 x 2 12 x 4)dx

9 x dx 12 xdx 4dx

2

9 x 21 12 x11

4x c

2 1 11

9 x 3 12 x 2

4x c

3 2

3x 6 x 4 x c

3 2

4 5x 2 1. a dx = ax + c

3. dx n 1

3 x

4 5x 2 4 5x 2 2. x n dx c

n 1

3 dx ( 3 3 )dx ax n 1

4 5 2 3. ax n dx c

dx x dx n 1

3 3

4 5 x 21

x ( )c

3 3 2 1

4 5 x3

x ( )c

3 3 3

4 5 3

x x c

3 9

2 x 3 5x 2 1. a dx = ax + c

4. 5

dx n 1

3x

x

2 x 5x 2 2 x 3 5x 2 2. x n dx c

n 1

x 5 dx ( x 5 x 5 )dx ax n 1

2 5 3. ax n dx c

( 2 3 )dx n 1

x x

(2 x 2 5 x 3 )dx

2 1 31

2x 5x

c

2 1 3 1

2 x 1 5 x 2

c

1 2

2 5

2 c

x 2x

Finding the constant of integration, c

dy 1. a dx = ax + c

Given that 3x 4 x 2 and y = 3 when x = 1

2

dx x n 1

2. x dx

n

c

Solution: n 1

n 1

ax

dy 3. ax n dx c

3x 2 4 x 2 n 1

dx

y (3x 2 4 x 2)dx

When x = 1, y = 3

y 3x dx 4 xdx 2dx

2

3 13 2(12 ) 2(1) c

3x 21 4 x11

y 2x c c=2

2 1 11

3x 3 4x 2

y 2x c

3 2

y x 3 2x 2 2x c

Integrals of expressions of the form ( ax b) n

n 1

(ax b)

(ax b) dx a(n 1) c

n

1. ( 2 x 7) 5 dx

51

( 2 x 7)

dx c

5

( 2 x 7)

2(5 1)

( 2 x 7) 6

c

12

1

2. dx

(5 x 8) 4

1

4

dx (5 x 8) dx

(5 x 8) 4

(5x 8) 41 1

c c

5(4 1) 15(5 x 8) 3

(5 x 8) 3

c

15

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