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STATISTICAL HYPOTHESES

The head of the PE dept claims that the

mean height of Grade 7 students is 163cm.

The mean height of 45 randomly selected

Grade7 students is 167cm. Using 0.01

significance level, can it be concluded that

the mean height of the randomly selected

students is different from what is claimed by

the dept Head?

H0 : μ = 163cm

Ha : μ ≠ 163cm

STATISTICAL HYPOTHESES

The manager of a TV station claims that the

mean number of people watching their new

sitcom is 500,000 each day. A student

conducted a survey regarding this and came

up with a mean of 499,999. Using a 0.05

significance level, can it be concluded that

the mean number of people watching said

sitcom is less than what is claimed?

H0 : μ = 5000,000

Ha : μ < 500,000

STATISTICAL HYPOTHESES

The LB Company produces an average of 4%

defective bulbs each day. Lately, some of the

machines were upgraded and out of the

400 randomly selected bulbs, only 14 were

found defective. Does this suggest that

there is a decrease in the number of

defective bulbs being produced each day?

Use 0.05 significance level.

H0 : p = 0.04

Ha : p < 0.04

Test Statistic – value to which the

sample mean should be converted to

help in drawing a conclusion and

making a decision.

Critical Value – the point(s) separating

the non-rejection and rejection

regions.

Level of Significance (α)– corresponds

to the rejection region

Illustration:

Rejection Rejection

region region

Non-rejection region

TYPES OF ERRORS

Decision hypothesis hypothesis

is true is false

Reject the TYPE I Correct

Null Hypothesis Error Decision

Accept the Correct TYPE II

Null Hypothesis Decision Error

ONE-TAILED TEST

- directional; depends on how the Ha is stated

Critical Value

Rejection

region

Non-rejection region

ONE-TAILED TEST

- directional; depends on how the Ha is stated

Critical Value

Rejection

region

Non-rejection region

TWO-TAILED TEST

- non-directional; α is divided equally between two tails

Rejection Rejection

region region

Non-rejection region

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

is a procedure used by

statisticians to determine whether

or not to reject a statement about

a population.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

t-statistic z-statistic

σ2 is unknown σ2 is known

n < 30 n > or = 30

t= x-μ z= x -μ

s σ

√n √n

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

The following are steps for a hypothesis test for a

population mean when the population is assumed to

follow normal distribution:

Step1: State the null and the alternative

hypotheses

Step2: Choose the level of significance

Step3: Compute the test statistic

Step4: Determine the critical value or the p-value

(for t-test: find df and use the Table of t

Critical Values)

Step5: Draw a conclusion

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

Critical Value Method

test statistic z falls within the rejection region (goes

beyond the critical values), reject the H0 and accept

the Ha

p-Value Method

If p-value < or = α, reject H0

If p=value > or = α, do not reject H0

EXAMPLE

The leader of the association of jeepney drivers

claims that the average take home pay of all

drivers in Angeles City is P400.00. A random

sample of 100 jeepney drivers in Angeles City

was interviewed and the average daily take

home pay of these driers is found to be P425.

Use a 0.05 significance level to find out id the

average daily take homepay of all jeepney

drivers in Angeles City is different from P400.00

when the population variance is P8,464.00.

Critical Value Method

Step1: State the null and the alternative

hypotheses

H0 : μ = 400

Ha : μ ≠ 400

α = 0.05

Critical Value Method

Step3: Compute the test statistic

known variance, n>30, use z-test

z = 2.72

non-directional = 2-tailed

Zα/2 = +/- 1.96

Critical Value Method

Step5: Draw your conclusion

Because the computed test statistic,

z=2.72 falls within the rejection

region (beyond the critical values +/-

1.96), reject the null hypothesis and

accept the alternative hypothesis.

Therefore, the average daily take home pay

of jeepney drivers is not equal to P400.00.

This result is considered to be significant at 0.05 level.

p-Value Method

Step1: State the null and the alternative

hypotheses

H0 : μ = 400

Ha : μ ≠ 400

α = 0.05

p-Value Method

Step3: Compute the test statistic

known variance, n>30, use z-test

z = 2.72

non-directional = 2-tailed

Az = 0.4967

α/2 = 0.5 - 0.4967 = 0.0033

Since 2-tailed, 0.0033x2 = 0.0066 = p-value

Critical Value Method

Step5: Draw your conclusion

Since 0.0066 < 0.05, reject the null

hypothesis and accept the

alternative hypothesis.

of jeepney drivers is not equal to P400.00.

This result is considered to be significant at 0.05 level.

EXERCISE1

According to a study done last year, the average

monthly expenses for cell phone loads of Grade

11 students in San Fernando was P350.00. A

Statistics student believes that this amount has

increased since January of this year. Is there a

reason to be believe that this amount has really

increased if a random sample of 60 students

has an average of monthly expenses for cell

phone loads of P380.00? Use a 0.05 level of

significance assuming that the population

standard deviation is P77.00.

EXERCISE2

The Head of the Math Department announced

that the mean score of Grade 11 students in the

3rd periodical exams in Calculus was 89 and the

standard deviation is 12. one student who

believed that the mean score was less than this,

randomly selected 34 students and computed

their mean score. She obtained a mean score of

85. At 0.01 level of significance, test the

student’s belief.

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