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HMEE5043

SEMINAR PAPER IN
EDUCATIONAL
MANAGEMENT
(ASSIGNMENT 2)
By :
Norihan Bt Kamal
Contents
1. Title and Keywords
2. Background of the Study
3. Research Objectives and Questions
4. Literature Review
5. Theoretical Framework
6. Summary of Findings
7. Significance of the Study
8. Research Method
9. Implications
10. Conclusion
11.References
1. TITLE AND KEYWORDS

 FACTORSASSOCIATED WITH JOB


SATISFACTION OF PRIMARY
SCHOOLS IN CLUSTER SCHOOLS.

 Keywords : mixed methods, Job


satisfaction, Job dissatisfaction,
Primary schools, Cluster schools
2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
 The study covers 2 selected cluster schools
located in two districts Kuala Kangsar and
Taiping. The sample size for primary data
includes 60 teachers primary schools selecting
(30 teachers from each of two schools).

 The present study is based on primary data,


which has been collected through a multiple
choice structured questionnaire that contain
some open-ended questions too.
Questionnaires have been framed for
teachers of cluster schools.
3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND
QUESTIONS
1. What aspect of the role of the teacher impacts on job
satisfaction?

2. Why do these aspects impact on job satisfaction?

3. What are the relevant strengths of these factors?

4. Is job satisfaction significantly affected by variables such as


age, qualification, school building type, experience
attendance of teachers’ training programme and the role of
the educational supervision centre?

5. How satisfied/dissatisfied are teachers in primary schools in


Cluster schools with their position as teacher?
4. LITERATURE REVIEW
Pearson and Moomaw (2005), the main reason for
this is that the research studies analysed different
indicators about teachers’ in-class and in-school
roles and their job satisfaction levels. In addition,
identification of these indicators varies in schools
with different Socio cultural and economic
background.

Tye and O’Brien (2002), Besides the differences


effecting job satisfaction levels such as teachers’
education level, gender, ethnicity, age, and socio-
economic conditions, their devotion to their jobs
makes these differences more complicated and
personel.
Job satisfaction is so important in that its
absence often leads to lethargy and reduced
organizational commitment. Lack of job
satisfaction is a predictor of quitting a job.

Sometimes workers may quit from public to the


private sector and vice versa. At the other times
the movement is from one profession to another
that is considered a greener pasture.

This later is common in countries grappling with


dwindling economy and its concomitant such
as poor conditions of service and late payment
of salaries. In such countries, people tend to
migrate to better and consistently paying jobs.
Union faculty were more satisfied with their pay
than were non-union faculty. Other significant
determinants of faculty pay satisfaction were pay
level, tenure, job experience, and sex.

With the exception of pay, unionization was


unrelated to other dimensions of job satisfaction.
The past decade has seen an enormous increase in
the number of unionized institutions in higher
education.

Faculty unionism replaces the collegial governance


system with one based on the process of collective
bargaining for determining wages, hours, and
conditions of employment.
5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Nevertheless, the most cited definition in the field of job
satisfaction research within the different disciplines that
have examined it, is the one offered by Locke (1976, P.
1300) in which he suggested that job satisfaction is “A
pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the
appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.”

Most of the relevant research has tried to determine the


factors which lead to satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
Buitendach and De Witte (2005) differentiate between
the dimensions of the factors which might affect job
satisfaction by classifying them into two categories –
extrinsic factors including promotion, co-workers,
supervision and recognition, and intrinsic factors
including personality, education, age and marital status.
 The impact of the organisational structure, especially
that of centralisation, appears as a dissatisfying factor in
a number of studies representing different educational
contexts such as Malaysia (Alroyali 2002), Jordan
(Yaseen 1990; Alomari 1992), Cyprus (Zembylas and
Papanastasion 2006), Turkey (Sari 2004) and Greece
(Saiti 2007), where bureaucracy and lack of autonomy
were found to dominate and to cause equal job
dissatisfaction for both teachers and teachers.

 The different perspectives used to tackle the


determination and classification of such factors was
found to overlap. However, these factors can be
separated into three main categories: namely, the
organisation category, the work itself category and the
individual characteristics category, as shown in Figure 1.
Work Itself Factors
Relationships
Recognition,
Appreciation
Respect, Physical
Organisation factors environment, Workload, Individual
Organisation Structure Achievement Characteristics
Policy
Age
Autonomy
Gender
Sallary
Qualifications
Reward
Experience

Overall Job
Satisfaction

Figure 1 The study Conceptual


Framework
6. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS
 The different sets of findings of the present study
are presented here according to the dominant
paradigm and the time order of the data
collection. The findings derived from focus
group interviews enabled the researcher to
define the major and sub-themes of job
satisfaction of the primary school teachers.

 These themes are morale, relationship with the


educational administration, relationships with
students and parents, the school environment,
relationship with educational supervision,
teachers’ practices and relationships with
teachers
 The combination of the identified factors
that were derived from the focus group
and the semi-structured interviews formed
the foundation of the questionnaire. The
latter included 68 factors based on the
number of responses for each factor. Any
responses fewer than three were rejected.

 To sum up, the qualitative findings


contributed to answering the main research
question of the present study by identifying
the factors which affect the primary school
teachers’ job satisfaction
7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
 The associations between job satisfaction and
occupational stress have long been established by
international research. A considerable amount of
literature has emerged in the context of schools and,
in particular, teachers.

 However, these processes have not been investigated


comprehensively in the context of primary schools in
recent years. In view of on going changes in schools
and curricula as well as the working conditions of
teachers, identifying factors influencing job
satisfaction and occupational stress is timely as the
ability to cope with change has become increasingly
important for teachers and principals (Kyriacou, 2001).
8.RESEARCH METHOD
 The present study deals with the analyses of job
satisfaction and performance of teachers in different
systems, namely, state, matriculation and central
board schools, at the primary level.

 The variables chosen in the present study are job


satisfaction and performance of teachers. The
target population for the present study is the
teachers in different categories of schools following
different systems of education at the primary level.

 From the target population a sample of 60 teachers


was chosen for the present study. The chosen
sample comprised of 60 teachers from the two
cluster schools.
9. IMPLICATIONS
 School climate was found to have a
strong impact on teacher and principal
job satisfaction and occupational stress.

 Jobsatisfaction and occupational stress


were also associated with working
conditions in the school in terms of job
characteristics and adequate resources
and facilities.
10. CONCLUSION
 Majority of teachers have chosen the profession
by their own will, they consider teaching as a
respectful profession.
 Most of the teachers are able to satisfy their
students; they said that their present salary did
not have any effect on their teaching ability.
 Most of the teachers are satisfied with the
behaviour of their principal and other
colleagues.
 A few teachers are getting accommodation
facility from schools.
11. REFERENCES
Aziah Ismail (2009). Accelerating cluster school excellence within guided
autonomy periphery: A Malaysian Case. Pulau Pinang, Malaysia: Universiti
Sains Malaysia.

Edward Sek Khin Wong and Teoh Ngee Heng (2009). Case study of factors
influencing jobs satisfaction in two Malaysian universities. CCSE: International
Business Research.

Lai Chai Hong, Nik Intan Norihan Abd Hamid and Norliza Mohd Salleh (2013).
A study on the factors affecting job satisfaction amongst employees of a
factory in Seremban, Malaysia. Business Management Dynamics.

Muhammad Madi B Abdullah, Jegak Uli and Shahrul Nizam Salahudin (2009).
Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Tawau, Sabah.

Satish Kumar Kalhotra (2012). A study of job satisfaction of primary and


secondary school teachers. Golden Research Thoughts.