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OSHAcademy Course 717

Emergency Action Plans


Objectives

1. Introduce Best Practices for Emergency Action


Plans, Fire Prevention Plans and Employee Alarm
Systems

2. Help on how to create and maintain an emergency


action plan.

3. Discuss a vulnerability analysis


Instructor Name
Position
Company Name
Phone Number
Email address

(Replace graphic and name with


your information)
U.S. STANDARDS WHICH SPECIFICALLY REQUIRE AN
EMERGENCY ACTION AND FIRE PREVENTION PLAN

1910.119 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS


• Process Safety Management
1910.120 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
• Hazardous Waste Operations
1910.157 FIRE PROTECTION
• Portable Fire Extinguishers
1910.160 FIRE PROTECTION
• Fixed Extinguishing Systems
1910.164 FIRE PROTECTION
• Fire Detection Systems
1910.272 SPECIAL INDUSTRIES
• Grain Handling Facilities
1910.1047 TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS
SUBSTANCES
• Ethylene Oxide
1910.1050/1926.60: TOXIC AND HAZARD
SUBSTANCES
• Methylenedianil (MDA)
….and more on OSHA’s Portable Fire
Extinguisher standard:

An emergency action plan and fire prevention


plan is required when:

 The employer requires a total evacuation of


the workplace regardless if extinguishers are
provided (but not intended for employee use)
or not.

 The employer provides fire extinguishers and


designates certain employees to use them
and all other employees evacuate.
What is an emergency?
An emergency is any unplanned event that can cause
death or significant injury to employees, customers, or
the public.
An emergency can...

• shut down your business or organization


• disrupt operations
• cause physical or environmental damage
• threaten the facility’s financial standing
• damage public image
What workplace emergencies have you
personally witnessed or known details about
from first-hand observers?

What happened?

How many people were effected?


What was the loss in human
tragedy? Property damage?

Was the business, industry, or organization


impacted as a result of the emergency that
occurred?

How?
Emergencies businesses can experience
include:

• Natural Disasters

• Technological

• Human
Name some emergencies as a result of natural
disasters...
What about earthquakes? (replace with maps of your local
area)
(REPLACE WITH LOCAL GEOLOGICAL MAPS)
What about volcanoes?
What about floods?
What about technological emergencies?
What about human emergencies?
What is emergency management?

Emergency management is a comprehensive


system set up to address and handle natural and
man-made hazards.
Emergency management has four primary parts:

1. Prevention 2. Preparing 3. Responding 4. Recovery


In an ideal world, we would practice the first
two steps, prevention and preparedness, and
go no further.

However, we need to also consider response


and recovery programs.
The Six Elements of an Emergency Action Plan

1. Procedures for emergency escape and escape


route assignments

2. Procedures to follow for emergency operation or


shutdown of critical equipment before evacuation

3. Procedures to account for all employees after


emergency evacuation
4. Procedures to follow for rescue and medical duties

5. Procedures for reporting fires and other


emergencies

6. Names and regular job titles of persons or


departments who can be contacted for further
information or explanation of plan duties.
The Five Elements of a Fire
Prevention Plan

1. A list of all major fire hazards including:

 proper handling and storage,


 potential ignition sources and their control,
 type of fire protection equipment necessary

2. Procedures to control accumulations of flammable


and combustible waste materials
3. Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards
on heat producing equipment

4. Names or job titles of employees responsible for


maintaining equipment

5. Names or job titles of those responsible for control


of fuel source hazards
Employee Training and
Review

Employers must designate employees to assist in the


safe emergency evacuation of other employees.

These designated employees must receive training in


emergency evacuation procedures.

What should this training address?


Training for all employees should address:

 Individual roles and responsibilities.


 Information about threats and hazards
 Protective actions.
 Notification and communication procedures.
 Warning signals and procedures.
 Means for locating family members.
 Emergency response procedures.
 Evacuation, shelter and accountability procedures.
 Location and use of emergency equipment.
 Emergency shutdown procedures.
Emergency action training can take many
forms.

What methods do you like?

Each employee must receive a review of the


emergency action plan and fire prevention plan.

Each employee must be informed of

 the fire hazards in their work area


 the criteria for self-protection as outlined in the fire
prevention plan
At a minimum, the review must be
accomplished

 when either the plan or the employee’s job is new

 when the employee’s responsibilities under the plan


change

 when the plan changes.

Should visitors to your facility receive some sort


of review?
Warning Systems and
Emergency Alarms

• Describe to the workers the alarm system used

• Can be paging systems, audible tones, detectors, word-


of-mouth, visual systems, tactile devices, vibration, air
fans, etc.

• Alarm must be capable of being perceived above


ambient noise or light levels by all employees affected.
• Tactile devices, vibration, or forced air may be used to
alert those who would not otherwise be able to
recognize an audible or visual alarm.

• The alarm must be distinctive and recognizable as a


signal to evacuate the work area or to perform actions
designated under your emergency action plan

• Where a communication system also serves as an


alarm system, all emergency messages shall have
higher priority over all non-emergency messages.
What is your alarm system?

How is your alarm system actuated and


transmitted?
Test alarm systems monthly. One
company conducted its first test of a
sophisticated alarm system 21 years
after the system was installed. Rather
than alarm bells, it played Christmas
music!
Developing your Emergency Action Plan

• Analyzing Capabilities
• Vulnerability Analysis
• Direction & Control
• Communications
• Emergency Evacuation
Procedures
• Plan Evaluation
Prevention

Mitigation is hazard identification and control!


Preventative actions can also include:

 Promoting sound land use planning


 Relocating or elevating structures out of the
floodplains
 Securing shelves and water heaters to nearby walls
 Installing hurricane straps to secure structures
 Developing and enforcing effective building codes
 Engineering roads/bridges to withstand earthquakes
 Using fire-retardant materials in new construction
 Developing and implementing a plan in your
business or community to reduce your susceptibility
to hazards
Preparing
An emergency action team can be very effective in
preparing and developing an emergency action plan.

Of course, this emergency action planning team can be


in addition to the “team” you may already have
established!

The Safety Committee !

Who should be on the team?


Analyze Capabilities and Hazards
Review Internal Plans and Policies

What documents will you look for?

 Evacuation Plan  Plant Closing Policy


 Fire Protection Plan  Employee Manual
 Safety & Health Program  Hazardous Materials Plan
 Environmental Policies  Risk Management Plan
 Security Procedures  Mutual Aid Agreements
 Insurance Programs
 Finance/Purchasing Procedures
 Capital Improvement Program
Supporting documents

What other documents will you need in an


emergency?
 Emergency call lists (wallet size if possible)
 Building & site maps that indicate utility shutoffs
 Water hydrants, water main valves, & water lines
 Gas main valves & gas lines
 Electrical cutoffs, electrical substations, storm drains,
& sewer lines
 Location of each building; Floor plans
 Alarms and enunciators, fire extinguishers, & fire
suppression systems
 Exits & stairways
 Designated escape routes
 Restricted areas
 Hazardous materials
 etc.
Meet with outside groups

What sources of information will you seek


out?
 Fire Department
 Police Department
 Community Emergency Management
Office
 Mayor’s Office
 Local Emergency Planning Committee
 Emergency Medical Services
Organizations
 Hospitals and the Red Cross
 National Weather Service
 Public Works Department
 Telephone Company
 Electric Utilities
Identify Codes and Regulations

Where will you look for these codes


and regulations?

• OSHA • Life Safety Code


• Emergency Management • Zoning regs
• Environmental regs • Corporate policies
• Seismic safety codes • Public agency policies
• Transportation regs • Law libraries
• Uniform Building Code • Internet
Identify Critical Products, Services, and
Operations

What areas will you review?

Areas to review:

• Products and/or services provided by suppliers

• Lifeline services like electricity, water, sewer, gas,


telecommunications, and transportation
Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities

What resources and capabilities will you need in an


emergency?

• Personnel like hazardous materials response team,


emergency medical services, & evacuation team;

• Fire protection and suppression equipment,


communications equipment, warning systems,
emergency power equipment;

• Facilities like emergency briefing areas; and

• Organizational capabilities, including evacuation plan


and employee support system.
Identify External Resources

Many external resources may be needed in the event of


an emergency.

Remember…

• community emergency workers like paramedics,


police, and firefighters will focus their response
where the need is greatest, or they may be victims
themselves

• response to your facility may be delayed


What ones might you need?

• Emergency Management Division

• Fire department, emergency medical services,


hospital, local and state police, community service
organizations, utilities, suppliers of emergency
equipment, and insurance carrier.

In (enter your local area) , it is the…


(Enter the address of your Emergency responders.)
What else must be addressed when considering
outside resources?

 Plan ahead! Make arrangements with


them when developing your plan.

 Some may require written agreements.


Do an insurance review

Meet with insurance carrier to review all policies.


Vulnerability Analysis

The process involves assigning probabilities,


estimating impact, and assessing resources,
using a numerical system.
TYPE OF EMERGENCY

Historical

Geographic

Technological

Practices and Conditions

Physical

Regulatory
Analyze each potential emergency from
beginning to end
Consider what could happen as a result of:

• Prohibited access to the facility


• Loss of electric power
• Communication lines down
• Ruptured gas mains
• Water damage
• Structural damage
• Air or water contamination
• Explosion
• Building collapse
• Trapped persons
• Chemical release
ESTIMATE PROBABILITY.

• In the probability column, rate the likelihood of each


emergency’s occurrence.

• This is a subjective consideration, but useful


nonetheless.

• Use a simple scale of 1 to 5 with 1 as the lowest


probability and 5 as the highest.
ASSESS THE POTENTIAL HUMAN IMPACT.

• Analyze the potential human impact of each


emergency - the possibility of death or injury.

• Assign a rating in the Human Impact column of the


Chart. Use a 1 to 5 scale with 1 as the lowest impact
and 5 as the highest.
ASSESS THE POTENTIAL PROPERTY IMPACT.

• Consider the potential property for losses and


damages.

• Again, assign a rating in the Property Damage column,


1 being the lowest impact and 5 being the highest.

• Consider:
 Cost to replace;
 Cost to set up temporary replacement; and
 Cost to repair.
ASSESS THE POTENTIAL BUSINESS IMPACT.

• Consider the loss of market share.

• Assign a rating in the Business Impact column.

• Again, use 1 as lowest, 5 as highest impact.

• Consider:
 Business interruption;
 Employees unable to report to work;
 Customers unable to reach the site;
 Company in violation of contracts;
 Imposition of fines, penalties, and legal costs;
 Interruption of supplies;
 Interruption of product distribution.
ASSESS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL RESOURCES.

• Assess your resources and ability to respond.

• Can we respond?

• Will external resources be able to respond as quickly


as we need them?

• If the answer is, “No,” then you may need to develop


additional emergency procedures, add training,
acquire additional equipment, establish mutual aid
agreements, or contract with specialized services.
ADD THE COLUMNS.

• Total the scores for each emergency.

• The lower the score the better.

• While this is subjective, the comparisons will help


determine planning and resource priorities.
Developing The Plan

Direction & Control

Communications

Emergency Evacuation Procedures

Coordination

Evaluation
What will I take back with me?

Workplace emergencies I could expect include:

The two steps of emergency management I want


to focus on are

Prevention
____________ & Preparation
______________
Based on the emergencies I listed above, what
prevention methods/strategies has my employer
established and implemented?

Based on the emergencies I listed above, what


prevention methods/strategies should be established
and implemented?

My emergency action team will include:


A primary function in preparing your emergency action
plan is analyzing your capabilities and hazards. Many
steps are involved in this analysis including:

internal plans, policies, and supporting


• Reviewing _________
documents.
• Meeting with outside
________ groups.
• Identifying __________
codes and regulations.
services and
• Identifying critical products, ___________,
operations.
resources and capabilities.
• Identifying internal _____________
external resources.
• Identifying ____________
insurance review.
• Conducting an ______________
Vulnerability ____________
And a ________________ Analysis is an effective
tool to gain a better understanding of where you are in
terms of resources versus the risks involved.
Have we established direction and control (or
chain of command) in case of an emergency?

If not, can we establish an emergency operating


center (EOC)?

Where do we begin?
At a minimum, OR-OSHA requires the following
components to be included in your emergency
action plan:

procedures and escape route


Emergency escape ______________
assignments
_______________

employees who
Procedures to be followed by ______________
operations before
remain to operate critical plant _______________
they evacuate

account for all employees after


Procedures to __________
evacuation has been completed
emergency _____________
medical duties for those employees
Rescue and __________
who are to perform them

reporting fires and other


The preferred means of ______________
emergencies

Names and regular _______


_________ Job titles of persons or
departments who can be contacted for further
information or explanation of plan duties
Do we have effective emergency
communications? If not, what should we have?

Do we have effective warning and/or alarm


systems? If not, what should we have?

Do we have an emergency evacuation plan


established? If not, where do we begin?

(hint: develop a checklist, coordinate with outside


organizations, etc.)
Training for all employees will address:

• Individual roles and responsibilities


• information about threats, hazards, and protective
actions
• notification, warning, and communication
procedures
• means for locating family members during an
emergency
• emergency response procedures
• evacuation, shelter and accountability procedures
• location and use of emergency equipment
emergency shutdown procedures, etc.

at least once a year!!!


We will also conduct drills ________________
What is my role? Where should I go?
Thanks for coming!

Before you run, please


complete the evaluation!