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CARBONATE SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

A. M. Imran

MK: ANALISIS STRATIGRAFI LANJUT


Sequence Stratigraphic Principles
Clastic stacking patterns

Carbonate stacking
patterns
Literature
 Reading, H.G. (Editor), 1996. Sedimentary
Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy .
Blackwell, Oxford, 688 pp. ISBN 0-632-03627-3.
 Emery, D. and Myers, K.J. (Editors), 1996. Sequence
Stratigraphy. Blackwell, Oxford, 297 pp. ISBN 0-632-
03706-7.

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Introduction
CARBONATE SEDIMENTS ARE BORN, NOT MADE

Definitions
 Sedimentology = the study of the processes of formation,
transport and deposition of material which accumulates as
sediment in continental and marine environments and eventually
forms sedimentary rocks
 Stratigraphy = the study of rocks to determine the order and
timing of events in Earth history

 Sequence stratigraphy = the analysis of genetically related


depositional units bounded by unconformities and their
correlative conformities

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Historical development of sedimentary geology
and key concepts

 Principle of superposition (Nicolas Steno, 1669)


 Uniformitarianism (“the present is the key to the past”) (James
Hutton and Charles Lyell, late 18th to early 19th century)

 Stratigraphy developed already around 1800


 Sedimentology is a relatively new discipline (1960s and 1970s)
 Late 1980s and 1990s: revival of stratigraphy (sequence
stratigraphy)
 Sedimentology focuses primarily on facies and depositional
environments (how were sediments/sedimentary rocks formed?)
 Stratigraphy focuses on the larger scale strata and Earth history
(when and where were sediments/sedimentary rocks formed?)

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8 EaES 455-1
9 EaES 455-1
SB
mfs
TS

Establish a framework of genetically


related stratigraphic facies geometries
and their bounding surfaces to
determine depositional setting
Power of Sequence Stratigraphy
Determines depositional setting by:
 Establishing the order in which strata were laid down in
 Explains the geometric hierarchy of sedimentary strata & the
elements formed by the strata
 Uses the major surfaces marking breaks in the character of
sedimentary section as a template for conceptual depositional
models, independent of time (relative ages)

Geologic time derived from:


 Radiometric markers
 Biostratigraphic markers

Framework for “Conceptual Models”


Used to Interpret Depositional Systems
beauty but not truth? –
 By Christopher G. St. C. Kendall
Sedimentary Analysis
Potential flow of
interpretation
data

data

Scheme used interpretation

to characterize
interpretation
depositional systems
so they can be
interpretation
compared

Sequence Stratigraphy Defined


Sedimentary Fill Hierarchy

Jeroen Schokker, Wim Westerhoff & Henk Weerts after Heinz & Aigner, 2003
Hierarchy of Carbonate Shelf
Architectural Elements
BED,, STACKED
SEDIMENTARY
LITHOLOGY STACKED BED
COMPONENT STRUCTURES CYCLES OF CYCLES
ALLOCHEMS
GRAINS FAUNA BEDS BEDS
CEMENTATION
& DIAGENESIS

PROGRADING MARGIN
MARGIN
HST MARGIN COMPLEX
COMPLEX
PROGRADING MARGIN

SHELF SHELF
MARGIN COMPLEX
ONLAPPING MARGIN
PROGRADING MARGIN
COMPLEX Sequence Stratigraphy Defined
Unit-Unit Stratigraphy

1. Lithostratigraphy – Based on rock type.


2. Litodemik - Based on rock type.
3. Biostratigraphy – Based on fossils.
4. Chronostratigraphy – Based on time relations.
5. Sequence stratigraphy – Based on geometry of
unconformities.
6. Magnetostratigraphy – Based upon magnetic
7. properties.
8. Seismic stratigraphy – Based on sound
propagation.
Definisi

• Seismik Fasies adalah unit atau paket pola-pola refleksi yang


teramati pada sekuen seismik.

• Hubungan perlapisan dengan refleksi terminasi:


• Toplap : refleksi terminasi yang menumpu ke arah permukaan
erosi yang berada di atasnya/ hiatus.

• Onlap : refleksi terminasi yang menumpu ke permukaan


miring (maju ke depan).

• Downlap (berada di bagian bawah): refleksi terminasi miring


yang menumpu ke permukaan horisontal/miring.
Stratal Termination
Sequence
Boundary (SB)

toplap

onlap onlap
downlap

Erosional
Truncation

Sequence Downlap Apparent


Boundary (SB) Surface Truncation
Model Sekuen Stratigrafi

• Sekuen stratigrafi adalah studi stratigrafi yang berhubungan


dengan kerangka waktu pengendapan dalam kaitannya
perubahan siklus muka laut (global/regional) .

• Setiap sekuen pengendapan terdiri dari perulangan perlapisan


yang dibatasi oleh permukaan erosi (UC) atau hiatus atau
permukaan yang selaras (C) (Van Wagoner et.al., 1987).

• Sekuen dibatasi secara regional oleh ketidakselarasan (UC) atau


permukaan keselarasan (C) (Mitchum et.al., 1977).

• Elemen penting dalam menentukan pola-pola sekuen stratigrafi


adalah shelf/slope break.
Sequence Stratigraphy Diagram

SMST (Shelf Margin Systems Sract)


HST (Highstand Systems Tract)
SB.2
(Sequence Boundary 2)

SB.1
(Sequence Boundary 1)

TST (Transgressive Systems Tract)

MFS (Maximum Flooding Surface)

PGC/LSW (Prograding Complex/ Lowstand Wedge)

SFC (Slope Fan Complex)


BFF (Basin Floor Fan)

Vail et al, 1987


Highstand Systems Tract (HST)

GR or SP
Top is Sequence Boundary
often embedded in sand
section TST

• Thickenning & coarsening-


upward.
• Stacked funnel-shaped log Highstand
motifs. Systems
• Aggradational to progradational Tract
parasequence sets.
Base is MFS, low TST
HST resistivity & high GR

Modified from Mitchum et al. (1994)


Lowstand ST : Basin Floor Fan (BFF)

Pelagic shale top seal GR or SP

Slope Fan
• Blocky log motif ocassionally Complex
serrate top.
• Massive central sand body.
• On flanks, interbedded shales Basin
form local barriers & baffles. Floor Fan
Rest directly upon
pelagic shale (SB),
Pelagic HST
bidirectional downlap
on log x-sections

BFF
Modified from Mitchum et al. (1994)
Lowstand ST : Slope Fan Complex (SFC)

GR or SP

Prograding
Faunal A/D peak at
Complex
top

• Crescentric-shaped log motif.


• Thicken-up at base, thin-up at top.
• 6 to 10 channel-overbank units Slope Fan
Complex
may stack in a single LST.

Lies upon SB or Basin


Floor Fan Basin Floor
Fan

Modified from Mitchum et al. (1994)

SFC
Lowstand Wedge (LSW) : Prograding Wedge (PGW)

GR or SP

Shift from shallow-up TST


to deepen up (FS)

• Thickening & coarsening-upward.


• Stacked funnel-shaped log motifs. Prograding
• Proximal sharp base, distal Complex
gradational.

Shingled turbidites at
base, overlay slope Slope Fan
fan.
PC
Modified from Mitchum et al. (1994)
Transgressive ST (TST)

GR or SP

Top is MFS, low


resistivity & high GR HST

• Stacked funnel-shaped log motif.


• Thinning and fining-upward. Transgressive
Systems
• Retrogradational parasequence
Tract
sets.

Base is first flood over HST or PGC


LSW or SB over HST
HST

Modified from Mitchum et al. (1994)


Aggradation: Progradation: Retrogradation

Aggradation

• Overall steady in
rate of creation of
accommodation
space
Retrogradation

Progradation

• Overall increasing in
rate of creation of
• Overall
accommodation
decreasing in rate
space
of creation of
accommodation
space
Aggradation & Progradation
Sea level
Highstand (HS)
High Low Shelf/ Slope Break
SMW
Shelf Margin Wedge
HST (SMW)

TST Co
Transgressive (TST) nde
CS ns ed
LSW S e ct
Incised Valley ion
LSF Fill (IVF) Lowstand Wedge
(LSW)
Lowstand Fan (LSF)
Aggradational/
Highstand Progradational Unit
Shelf/ Slope Break
Shalley
Submarine Fan

Lowstand
Shale Marker
Lowstand sand rich
submarine fan
Seismic Stratigraphy, Vail et al., 1977
Fluviatil System

Landward
Deep Marine

Core Reef Back Reef

Fore Reef

Shallow Marine

Basement
GEOL 553 Lecture 3; Subsurface Analysis
GEOL 553 Lecture 3; Subsurface Analysis
Jurassic Stratigraphy &
Sea Level
Jurassic Stratigraphy –
Parasequence Stacking
Bedding Planes

Sequence Stratigraphy Defined


GEOL 553 Lecture 3; Subsurface Analysis
GEOL 553 Lecture 3; Subsurface Analysis
After Harris & Saller 1999
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles

Idealized sequences & systems tracts from Handford & Loucks, 1993.
Sequence Stratigraphic Principles
Murray Basin
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