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Sort

Lecture #17

How Fast Can We Sort?

– Make comparisons between input elements

2

Lower-Bound for Sorting

make (nlgn) comparisons in the worst case.

3

Can we do better?

– Counting Sort

– Radix Sort

– Bucket sort

4

Counting Sort

• Assumptions:

– n integers which are in the range [0 ... r]

– r is in the order of n, that is, r=O(n)

• Idea:

– For each element x, find the number of elements x

– Place x into its correct position in the output array

output array

5

Step 1

(i.e., frequencies)

(r=6)

6

Step 2

7

Algorithm

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A 2 5 3 0 2 3 0 3

0 1 2 3 4 5

Cnew 2 2 4 7 7 8

8

Example

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5

A 2 5 3 0 2 3 0 3 Cnew 2 2 4 7 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

B 3 B 0 3

0 1 2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

Cnew 2 2 4 6 7 8 Cnew 1 2 4 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

B 0 3 3 B 0 2 3 3

0 1 2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

Cnew 1 2 4 5 7 8 Cnew 1 2 3 5 7 8

9

Example (cont.)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A 2 5 3 0 2 3 0 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

B 0 0 2 3 3 B 0 0 2 3 3 3 5

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

C 0 2 3 5 7 8 C 0 2 3 4 7 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

B 0 0 2 3 3 3 B 0 0 2 2 3 3 3 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

C 0 2 3 4 7 8

10

COUNTING-SORT

1 j n

A

Alg.: COUNTING-SORT(A, B, n, k) 0 k

1. for i ← 0 to r C

2. do C[ i ] ← 0 B

1 n

3. for j ← 1 to n

4. do C[A[ j ]] ← C[A[ j ]] + 1

5. C[i] contains the number of elements equal to i

6. for i ← 1 to r

7. do C[ i ] ← C[ i ] + C[i -1]

8. C[i] contains the number of elements ≤ i

9. for j ← n downto 1

10. do B[C[A[ j ]]] ← A[ j ]

11. C[A[ j ]] ← C[A[ j ]] - 1

11

Analysis of Counting Sort

Alg.: COUNTING-SORT(A, B, n, k)

1. for i ← 0 to r O(r)

2. do C[ i ] ← 0

3. for j ← 1 to n

O(n)

4. do C[A[ j ]] ← C[A[ j ]] + 1

5. C[i] contains the number of elements equal to i

6. for i ← 1 to r

O(r)

7. do C[ i ] ← C[ i ] + C[i -1]

8. C[i] contains the number of elements ≤ i

9. for j ← n downto 1

10. do B[C[A[ j ]]] ← A[ j ] O(n)

Overall time: O(n + r) 12

Analysis of Counting Sort

13

Radix Sort

• Represents keys as d-digit numbers in some

base-k

key = x1x2...xd where 0≤xi≤k-1

• Example: key=15

14

Radix Sort

• Assumptions

d=O(1) and k =O(n)

• Sorting looks at one column at a time

– For a d digit number, sort the least significant

digit first

– Continue sorting on the next least significant

digit, until all digits have been sorted

– Requires only d passes through the list

15

RADIX-SORT

Alg.: RADIX-SORT(A, d)

for i ← 1 to d

do use a stable sort to sort array A on digit i

(stable sort: preserves order of identical elements)

16

Analysis of Radix Sort

17

Analysis of Radix Sort

18

Bucket Sort

• Assumption:

– the input is generated by a random process that distributes

elements uniformly over [0, 1)

• Idea:

– Divide [0, 1) into k equal-sized buckets (k=Θ(n))

– Distribute the n input values into the buckets

– Sort each bucket (e.g., using quicksort)

– Go through the buckets in order, listing elements in each one

19

Example - Bucket Sort

A 1 .78 B 0 /

4 .26 3 .39 /

5 .72 4 / Distribute

6 .94 5 / Into buckets

7 .21 6 .68 /

9 .23 8 /

10 .68 9 .94 /

20

Example - Bucket Sort

0 /

1 .12 .17 /

3 .39 /

Sort within each

4 /

bucket

5 /

6 .68 /

7 .72 .78 /

8 /

9 .94 / 21

Example - Bucket Sort

.12 .17 .21 .23 .26 .39 .68 .72 .78 .94 /

0 /

1 .12 .17 /

3 .39 /

4 /

6 .68 / 0 to n – 1 together, in order

7 .72 .78 /

8 /

9 .94 / 22

Analysis of Bucket Sort

Alg.: BUCKET-SORT(A, n)

for i ← 1 to n

O(n)

do insert A[i] into list B[nA[i]]

for i ← 0 to k - 1

k O(n/k log(n/k))

do sort list B[i] with quicksort sort =O(nlog(n/k)

together in order O(k)

O(n) (if k=Θ(n))

23

Radix Sort as a Bucket Sort

24

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