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MT30001: MATERIALS ENGINEERING (3-0-0)

Introduction: Solid Engineering Materials- their classification and characteristic properties.


Structure of solids: crystal systems/lattices, crystal structure, crystallographic planes and directions, interstitial sites, crystallinity in metals,
ceramics, semiconductors and polymers, microstructures and metallography, amorphous or glassy state.
Solidification of pure metal: Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation processes, cooling curve, concept of supercooling,
microstructure of pure metals.
Defects in solids: Point, line, planar and volume. Fundamentals of plastic deformation of metals, deformation by slip and twin, plastic
deformation in polycrystalline metals, concept of cold working, preferred orientation. Annealing: Recovery, recrystallization and grain
growth, hot working.
Properties of materials: Definition, units and common tests conducted to evaluate important engineering properties like physical,
mechanical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, semi/super-conducting, optical, and thermal properties in engineering materials.
Concept of formation of alloys: Types of alloys, solid solutions, factors affecting solid solubility, order disorder transformation.
Binary phase diagrams: Isomorphous, eutectic, peritectic, eutectoid and peritectoid systems, effect of non equilibrium cooling, coring and
homogenization.
Iron-cementite diagram: Construction and interpretation Fe-Fe3C and Fe-Graphite diagrams. Microstructure and properties of different
alloys in steel and cast iron, types of cast iron, their microstructures and typical uses.
Heat treatment: T-T-T and C-C-T diagrams, concept of heat treatments of steel - annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering,
microstructural effects brought about by these processes and their influence on mechanical properties. Effect of common alloying
elements in steel, concept of hardenability, factors affecting it
Ferrous and non-ferrous alloys: Common alloy steels, stainless steel, tool steel, high speed steel, high strength low alloy steel,
microalloyed steel, specifications of steels. Physical metallurgy of common non-ferrous alloys: Cu-, Al- and Ni- based alloys.
Microstructures and heat treatment of common alloys of these systems
Engineering ceramics and polymers: Structure, properties and application of common engineering ceramics and polymers.
Composites: Principle, structure and application of composites.

Text Books:
1. W. D. Callister, Jr: Materials Science and Engineering- An Introduction, John Wiley and Sons, N.Y, 1985.
2. J. F. Shackelford: Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, Mc-Millan Publishing Co., N.Y. 1992.
3. W.F. Smith: Principles of Materials Science and Engineering, Mc Graw Hill Int., 1986.
4. V. Raghavan: Materials Science and Engineering, 4th Ed., Prentice Hall of India, 1998.

Class representative: Varun Singh varun185@gmail.com 9733741577


MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Metals: valence electrons are detached from atoms, and spread in an 'electron sea' that "glues" the ions
together. Metals are usually strong, conduct electricity and heat well and are opaque to light (shiny if
polished). Examples: aluminum, steel, brass, gold.

Semiconductors: the bonding is covalent (electrons are shared between atoms). Their electrical
properties depend extremely strongly on minute proportions of contaminants. They are opaque to
visible light but transparent to the infrared. Examples: Si, Ge, GaAs.

Ceramics: atoms behave mostly like either positive or negative ions, and are bound by Coulomb forces
between them. They are usually combinations of metals or semiconductors with oxygen, nitrogen or
carbon (oxides, nitrides, and carbides). Examples: glass, porcelain, many minerals.

Polymers: are bound by covalent forces and also by weak van der Waals forces, and usually based on H,
C and other non-metallic elements. They decompose at moderate temperatures (100 – 400 C), and are
lightweight. Other properties vary greatly. Examples: plastics (nylon, Teflon, polyester) and rubber.

Other categories are not based on bonding. A particular microstructure identifies composites, made of
different materials in intimate contact (example: fiberglass, concrete, wood) to achieve specific
properties. Biomaterials can be any type of material that is biocompatible and used, for instance, to
replace human body parts.
POLYMERS

Polymers are macro-sized molecules of relatively high molecular mass. They are obtained by joining together a large
number of small molecules. Structurally, they are characterized by many repeating molecular units which form linear
chains or a cross-linked network. The process of formation of polymers from their starting materials is called
polymerization and the small molecules that combine with each other are termed as monomers.
A polymer may be made by polymerization of a large number of one or more compounds. Thus, polythene is
made only from ethylene (ethene) but nylon-66 is made from H2N-(CH2)6-NH2 (hexamethylene diamine) and
HOOC(CH2)4COOH (adipic acid).
IONIC BONDING
COVALENT BONDING
METALLIC BONDING
INTERMOLECULAR BONDING
INTERMOLECULAR BONDING
INTERMOLECULAR BONDING
INTERMOLECULAR BONDING
Atomic Bonding
• Covalent • Metallic
– sharing electrons – metal ions in sea or electrons
– strong – moderately strong
– directional – non-directional
• Ionic • Secondary
– trading of elecrons – Van der Waals
– electrostatic attraction or ions – H-bonding
– strong – electrostatic attraction of
– non-directional electric dipole (local charge
distribution
– weak
Types of Materials
• Metals:
– Strong, ductile
– high thermal & electrical conductivity
– opaque, reflective.
• Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding  sharing of e’s
– Soft, ductile, low strength, low density
– thermal & electrical insulators
– Optically translucent or transparent.
• Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) – compounds of metallic & non-
metallic elements (oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides)
– Brittle, glassy, elastic
– non-conducting (insulators)
BONDING CHARACTERISTICS – SIGNIFICANCE
Summary: Primary Bonds
Ceramics Large bond energy
large Tm
(Ionic & covalent bonding): large E
small a

Metals Variable bond energy


moderate Tm
(Metallic bonding):
moderate E
moderate a

Polymers Directional Properties


Secondary bonding dominates
(Covalent & Secondary):
small Tm
small E
large a
The Materials Selection Process
Pick Application Determine required Properties
1.
Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,
magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

Properties Identify candidate Material(s)


2.
Material: structure, composition.

Material Identify required Processing


3.
Processing: changes structure and overall shape
ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.
ELECTRICAL
• Electrical Resistivity of Copper:

6
5
4
(10-8 Ohm-m)
Resistivity, r

3
2
1
0 T (°C)
-200 -100 0
• Adding “impurity” atoms to Cu increases resistivity.
• Deforming Cu increases resistivity.
THERMAL
• Space Shuttle Tiles: • Thermal Conductivity
--Silica fiber insulation of Copper:
offers low heat conduction. --It decreases when
you add zinc!

400

Thermal Conductivity
300

(W/m-K)
200

100
0
0 10 20 30 40
Composition (wt% Zinc)

100mm
MAGNETIC
• Magnetic Storage:
• Magnetic Permeability
--Recording medium vs. Composition:
is magnetized by --Adding 3 atomic % Si
recording head. makes Fe a better
recording medium!

Fe+3%Si

Magnetization
Fe

Magnetic Field
OPTICAL
• Transmittance:
--Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or
opaque depending on the material structure.

polycrystal: polycrystal:
single crystal low porosity high porosity
Fundamentals of Structure of Crystalline
Solids

ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
• How do atoms assemble into solid structures in
crystalline and non-crystalline materials?

• How do we specify directions and planes in


unit cells?

• How do we distinguish between single crystals


and polycrystalline materials?

• When do material properties vary with the


sample (i.e., part) orientation?
Energy and Packing
• Non dense, random packing
Energy

typical neighbor
bond length

typical neighbor r
bond energy

• Dense, ordered packing Energy

typical neighbor
bond length

typical neighbor r
bond energy

Dense, ordered packed structures tend to have


lower energies.
Materials and Packing
Crystalline materials...
• atoms pack in periodic, 3D arrays
• typical of: -metals
-many ceramics
-some polymers
crystalline SiO2

Noncrystalline materials...
Si Oxygen
• atoms have no periodic packing
• occurs for: -complex structures
-rapid cooling

"Amorphous" = Noncrystalline noncrystalline SiO2


Point Coordinates
z
111 Point coordinates for unit cell
c center are
a/2, b/2, c/2 ½½½

y
a 000 b Point coordinates for unit cell
x
corner are 111

z 2c
 Translation: integer multiple of
lattice constants 
identical position in another
  unit cell
b y

b
Crystallographic Directions
z Algorithm

1. Vector repositioned (if necessary) to pass


through origin.
2. Read off projections in terms of
unit cell dimensions a, b, and c
y 3. Adjust to smallest integer values
4. Enclose in square brackets, no commas
x [uvw]

ex: 1, 0, ½ => 2, 0, 1 => [ 201 ]

-1, 1, 1 => [ 111 ] where overbar represents a negative index

families of directions <uvw>


HCP Crystallographic Directions
z
Algorithm

1. Vector repositioned (if necessary) to pass


through origin.
2. Read off projections in terms of unit
a2 cell dimensions a1, a2, a3, or c
3. Adjust to smallest integer values
- 4. Enclose in square brackets, no commas
a3
[uvtw] a2
a1
a2 -a3
2
a3
ex: ½, ½, -1, 0 => [ 1120 ]
a1
2
dashed red lines indicate
projections onto a1 and a2 axes a1
HCP Crystallographic Directions
• Hexagonal Crystals
– 4 parameter Miller-Bravais lattice coordinates are
related to the direction indices (i.e., u'v'w') as follows.

z
[ u ' v ' w ' ]  [ uvtw ]

1
u = ( 2 u ' - v ')
3
a2 1
v = ( 2 v ' - u ')
3
-
a3 t = - (u + v )
a1
w = w '
Crystallographic Planes
Crystallographic Planes
• Miller Indices: Reciprocals of the (three) axial
intercepts for a plane, cleared of fractions &
common multiples. All parallel planes have same
Miller indices.

• Algorithm
1. Read off intercepts of plane with axes in
terms of a, b, c
2. Take reciprocals of intercepts
3. Reduce to smallest integer values
4. Enclose in parentheses, no
commas i.e., (hkl)
Miller Indices
(hkl) specific
Planes - No commas
{hkl} family
- No fractions
- Negative indicated
[hkl] specific
Directions by bar overnumber
<hkl> family

A family of planes includes all planes which are equivalent by symmetry -


depends on crystal system.
- For cubic: (110),(011) and (101) are all {110}
- For tetragonal: (011) and (101) are {101}
but (110) is not (ca)
Crystallographic Planes
z

example a b c c
1. Intercepts 1 1 
2. Reciprocals 1/1 1/1 1/
1 1 0
y
3. Reduction 1 1 0
a b
4. Miller Indices (110) x
z
example a b c
1. Intercepts 1/2   c
2. Reciprocals 1/½ 1/ 1/
2 0 0
3. Reduction 2 0 0 y
4. Miller Indices (100) a b

x
Crystallographic Planes
z
example
a b c
c
1. Intercepts 1/2 1 3/4 
2. Reciprocals 1/½ 1/1 1/¾
2 1 4/3  y
a  b
3. Reduction 6 3 4
x
4. Miller Indices (634)

Family of Planes {hkl}

Ex: {100} = (100), (010), (001), (100), (010), (001)


Crystallographic Planes (HCP)
• In hexagonal unit cells the same idea is used
z

example a1 a2 a3 c
1. Intercepts 1  -1 1
2. Reciprocals 1 1/ -1 1
1 0 -1 1 a2

3. Reduction 1 0 -1 1
a3

Miller-Bravais Indices (1011) a1

From Fig. 3.6(b)


Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering,
Adapted Version.

33
Miller Indices - Directions
c

b -1 1/2
a

x y z
-1/3
1/2 -1 -1/3 (x 6)
3 6 2

1/2
1 x y z
1 1/4 1/2 (x 4)
4 1 2
1/4
Miller Indices - Planes
c c
1 1
b 4 b 4
a a

1 1
2 2

x y z
intercept 1/4  -1/2
reciprocal 4 0 -2
4 0 2 
Miller Indices - Planes
c
c
1 b
1
3 a
3
b
a
1 1
4 4

1 1
2 2

x y z
intercept 1/4 -1/3 -1/2
reciprocal 4 -3 -2
4 3 2 