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# Power System Control

Objectives

## To generate and deliver power in an interconnected system as

economically and reliably as possible

## To maintain voltage and frequency within permissible limits

Basic Generator Control Loops
The two basic ways of controlling the frequency and voltage are by
using Load frequency Control loop (LFC) and Automatic Voltage
regulator loop (AVR).
Changes in real power affect mainly the system frequency. The LFC
loop controls the real power and frequency.
Reactive power is less sensitive to changes in frequency and mainly
dependent on voltage magnitude. The AVR loop controls the reactive
power and voltage magnitude.
Cross coupling between LFC loop and AVR loop is negligible so the
frequency and voltage controls can be analyzed independently.
Schematic diagram of LFC and AVR of a synchronous generator
Governor model
When the generator electrical load is suddenly increased, the electrical power
exceeds the mechanical power input. The power lack is supplied by the kinetic
energy stored in the rotating system. The reduction in the kinetic energy causes the
turbine speed and so the generator frequency to fall. The change in speed is sensed
by the turbine governor which acts to adjust the turbine input valve to change the
mechanical power output to bring the speed to a new steady state. The steady
state characteristics of such a governor can be shown as below
4 Y-Values
3

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Governor model
The slope of the curve represents speed regulation R. It’s normally 5-6%.
The governor output is ΔPg= ΔPref – 1/R Δω
Where, ΔPref = reference power
1/R Δω = power from governor speed characteristics
In the S domain it can be written as ΔPg(s) = ΔPref(s) – 1/R ΔΩ(s)
The command ΔPg is transformed through hydraulic amplifier to the turbine input
valve command ΔPv. Relation between them in the S domain is
1
ΔPv(s)= ΔPg(s)
1+τ𝑔𝑠
So the block diagram of governor is
ΔPref(s) ΔPg(s) 1 ΔPv(s)
1 + τ𝑔𝑠
-
1/R ΔΩ(s)
Prime Mover model
Prime mover is the source of mechanical power. The model for the turbine relates
changes in mechanical power output ΔPm to the changes in the turbine input ΔPv.
The simplest prime mover model can be approximated as
1
ΔPm(s) = ΔPv(s)
1+τ𝑇 𝑆
So the block diagram can be drawn as

1
ΔPv(s) ΔPm(s)
1 + τ𝑇 𝑆

## The time constant τ 𝑇 is in the range of 0.2 to 2 seconds.

Generator model
𝟐𝐇 𝐝𝟐 𝛅
From the swing equation we know that = Pm - Pe
𝛚𝐬 𝐝𝐭 𝟐
𝟐𝐇 𝐝𝟐 Δ𝛅
For small disturbances = ΔPm – ΔPe
𝛚𝐬 𝐝𝐭 𝟐
If we express speed in per unit with respect to synchronous speed then
𝒅Δ𝛚
finally after calculation we get = 1/2H (ΔPm – ΔPe)
𝒅𝒕
By laplace transformation ΔΩ(s) = 1/2Hs (ΔPm(s) – ΔPe(s))
So the generator block diagram is
1 ΔΩ(s)
ΔPm(s)
2𝐻𝑆
-
ΔPe(s)
The resistive loads are independent of frequency. But motor loads are sensitive to
changes in frequency.
The speed load characteristic of a load is ΔPe = ΔPl + DΔω
Where ΔPl = non frequency sensitive load change
DΔω = frequency sensitive load change
Now so the generator and load combined block diagram is

ΔPm(s) 1
ΔΩ(s)
2𝐻𝑆 + 𝐷
-

ΔPl(s)
Complete block diagram of LFC
We can get the complete block diagram of LFC for an isolated power
system by combining the governor, prime mover, generator and load
models.

ΔPl(s)

## ΔPref(s) ΔPg(s) 1 ΔPv(s) 1 ΔPm(s)

- 1 ΔΩ(s)
1 + τ𝑔𝑠 1 + τ𝑇 𝑆 2𝐻𝑆 + 𝐷
- Governor Turbine Rotating mass

1/R
Frequency deviation step response
For obtaining the frequency deviation step response of an isolated
power station we simply consider the following parameters

𝝉𝑻 0.5
𝝉𝒈 0.2
H 5
R 0.05
D 0.8
ΔPl 0.2
Frequency deviation step response
The corresponding SIMULINK model and the response is as following
Frequency deviation step response
The frequency deviation step response is
0

-0.005
Frequency
deviation

-0.01

-0.015
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time, sec
Automatic generation Control (AGC)
If the load on the system is increased the turbine speed drops before
the governor can adjust the input of the steam valve.
One way to restore the speed or frequency to its nominal value is to
add an integrator. The integral unit monitors the average error over a
period of time and will overcome the offset. This is known as reset
action. Thus as the load changes continuously the generation is
adjusted automatically to restore the frequency.
With the LFC loop there will be a steady state error. To overcome this
frequency deviation we use AGC. The integral controller gain Ki must be
Automatic generation Control (AGC)
The block diagram of AGC of an isolated power station is
Automatic generation Control (AGC)
Just like the LFC loop is we consider the same values of 𝜏 𝑇 , 𝜏𝑔, H, R, D
and ΔPl and if we set the additional integral controller gain Ki to 7, then
by using SIMULINK we get the following output.
-3
x 10
2

-2

-4
frequency
deviation

-6

-8

-10

-12

-14
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time, sec
PID controller based AGC
If we use PID controller based AGC instead of a conventional AGC we
can get even a better response. A comparison between conventional
AGC and PID controller based AGC is shown below.
-3
x 10 Time Series Plot:
2

-2

-4
frequency
deviation

-6

-8

-10

-12
Integrator based
-14 PID based

-16
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)
Reactive power and voltage control
A change in reactive power affects mainly the voltage magnitude.
The sources of reactive power are generators, capacitors and reactors.
The primary means of generator reactive power control is the
generator excitation control using Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR).
An increase in the reactive power load of the generator is accompanied
by a drop in the terminal voltage. The voltage magnitude is sensed by a
potential transformer on one phase. This voltage is rectified and
compared to a DC set point value. The amplified error signal controls
the exciter field and increases exciter terminal voltage. Thus the
generator field current is increased which results in the increase of the
EMF. The reactive power generation is increased raising the terminal
voltage to the desired value.
Amplifier model

## The excitation system amplifier may be magnetic, rotating amplifier or

modern electronic amplifier.
𝑉𝑅 (𝑠) 𝐾𝐴
The transfer function is =
𝑉𝑒 (𝑠) 1+τ𝐴 𝑆

## Typical values of 𝐾𝐴 are in the range of 10 to 400.

The amplifier time constant is very small in the range of 0.02 to 0.1 sec.
Exciter model
Modern exciters use AC power sources through solid state rectifiers like
SCRs. The output voltage of the exciter is a nonlinear function of the
field voltage. A reasonable model of a modern exciter is linearized
which takes into account the major time constant and ignores
nonlinearities.
𝑉𝐹 (𝑠) 𝐾𝐸
The transfer function is =
𝑉𝑅 (𝑠) 1+τ𝐸 𝑆
Generator model
The synchronous machine generated EMF is a function of machine
magnetization curve and its terminal voltage is dependent on the
𝑉𝑡 (𝑠) 𝐾𝐺
The transfer function is =
𝑉𝐹 (𝑠) 1+τ𝐺 𝑆

## The constants are load dependent. 𝐾𝐺 may vary between 0.7 to 1.

The time constant varies between 1 and 2 seconds.
Sensor model
The voltage is sensed through a potential transformer and is rectified
through a bridge rectifier.
𝑉𝑆 (𝑠) 𝐾𝑅
The transfer function is =
𝑉𝑡 (𝑠) 1+τ𝑅 𝑆

## The time constant varies from 0.01 to 0.06 seconds.

The complete model
The complete block diagram of AVR is as following

## 𝑉𝑟𝑒𝑓 (𝑠) 𝑉𝑒 (𝑠) 𝐾𝐴 𝑉𝑅 (𝑠) 𝐾𝐸 𝑉𝐹 (𝑠) 𝐾𝐺 𝑉𝑡 (𝑠)

1 + τ𝐴 𝑆 1 + τ𝐸 𝑆 1 + τ𝐺 𝑆
- Amplifier Exciter Generator

𝐾𝑅
1 + τ𝑅 𝑆
Sensor
Terminal voltage step response
If we consider the AVR system to have the following parameters

Gain Time
constant
Amplifier 10 0.01
Exciter 1 0.04
Generator 1 1
Sensor 1 0.05
Terminal voltage step response
The corresponding SIMULINK model is as following
Terminal voltage step response
The terminal voltage step response is
Time Series Plot:
1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
data

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (seconds)
Rate feedback stabilizer

## The previous response was highly oscillatory. It had a very large

overshoot and long settling time. The steady state error was also above
9 percent. So the AVR response was not satisfactory. We must increase
the stability by introducing a controller. One way to do this is by using a
rate feedback stabilizer to control the system. It adds a zero to the AVR
open loop transfer function.
Rate feedback stabilizer
Block diagram of the AVR system using rate feedback stabilizer is
Rate feedback stabilizer
After using the rate feedback stabilizer the terminal voltage step
response using SIMULINK is as following
Time Series Plot:
1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6
data

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (seconds)
Excitation system stabilizer- PID controller
One of the most common controllers available commercially is the
proportional integral derivative controller (PID). The PID controller is
used to improve the dynamic response as well as to eliminate the
steady state error. The derivative controller adds a finite zero to the
open loop transfer function and the integral controller adds a pole at
origin.
By using the PID controller the response settles very quickly with a
negligibly small overshoot. The PID controller reduces the steady state
error to zero.
Excitation system stabilizer- PID controller
The block diagram of AVR compensated with a PID controller is
Excitation system stabilizer- PID controller
The terminal voltage step response after using PID controller is
Time Series Plot:
1.4

1.2

0.8
data

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (seconds)

The response settles in about 0.8 seconds with a very small overshoot.
Thank You