Objectives
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Governor model
The slope of the curve represents speed regulation R. It’s normally 56%.
The governor output is ΔPg= ΔPref – 1/R Δω
Where, ΔPref = reference power
1/R Δω = power from governor speed characteristics
In the S domain it can be written as ΔPg(s) = ΔPref(s) – 1/R ΔΩ(s)
The command ΔPg is transformed through hydraulic amplifier to the turbine input
valve command ΔPv. Relation between them in the S domain is
1
ΔPv(s)= ΔPg(s)
1+τ𝑔𝑠
So the block diagram of governor is
ΔPref(s) ΔPg(s) 1 ΔPv(s)
1 + τ𝑔𝑠

1/R ΔΩ(s)
Prime Mover model
Prime mover is the source of mechanical power. The model for the turbine relates
changes in mechanical power output ΔPm to the changes in the turbine input ΔPv.
The simplest prime mover model can be approximated as
1
ΔPm(s) = ΔPv(s)
1+τ𝑇 𝑆
So the block diagram can be drawn as
1
ΔPv(s) ΔPm(s)
1 + τ𝑇 𝑆
ΔPm(s) 1
ΔΩ(s)
2𝐻𝑆 + 𝐷

ΔPl(s)
Complete block diagram of LFC
We can get the complete block diagram of LFC for an isolated power
system by combining the governor, prime mover, generator and load
models.
ΔPl(s)
1/R
Frequency deviation step response
For obtaining the frequency deviation step response of an isolated
power station we simply consider the following parameters
𝝉𝑻 0.5
𝝉𝒈 0.2
H 5
R 0.05
D 0.8
ΔPl 0.2
Frequency deviation step response
The corresponding SIMULINK model and the response is as following
Frequency deviation step response
The frequency deviation step response is
0
0.005
Frequency
deviation
0.01
0.015
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time, sec
Automatic generation Control (AGC)
If the load on the system is increased the turbine speed drops before
the governor can adjust the input of the steam valve.
One way to restore the speed or frequency to its nominal value is to
add an integrator. The integral unit monitors the average error over a
period of time and will overcome the offset. This is known as reset
action. Thus as the load changes continuously the generation is
adjusted automatically to restore the frequency.
With the LFC loop there will be a steady state error. To overcome this
frequency deviation we use AGC. The integral controller gain Ki must be
adjusted for satisfactory response.
Automatic generation Control (AGC)
The block diagram of AGC of an isolated power station is
Automatic generation Control (AGC)
Just like the LFC loop is we consider the same values of 𝜏 𝑇 , 𝜏𝑔, H, R, D
and ΔPl and if we set the additional integral controller gain Ki to 7, then
by using SIMULINK we get the following output.
3
x 10
2
2
4
frequency
deviation
6
8
10
12
14
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time, sec
PID controller based AGC
If we use PID controller based AGC instead of a conventional AGC we
can get even a better response. A comparison between conventional
AGC and PID controller based AGC is shown below.
3
x 10 Time Series Plot:
2
2
4
frequency
deviation
6
8
10
12
Integrator based
14 PID based
16
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)
Reactive power and voltage control
A change in reactive power affects mainly the voltage magnitude.
The sources of reactive power are generators, capacitors and reactors.
The primary means of generator reactive power control is the
generator excitation control using Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR).
An increase in the reactive power load of the generator is accompanied
by a drop in the terminal voltage. The voltage magnitude is sensed by a
potential transformer on one phase. This voltage is rectified and
compared to a DC set point value. The amplified error signal controls
the exciter field and increases exciter terminal voltage. Thus the
generator field current is increased which results in the increase of the
EMF. The reactive power generation is increased raising the terminal
voltage to the desired value.
Amplifier model
𝐾𝑅
1 + τ𝑅 𝑆
Sensor
Terminal voltage step response
If we consider the AVR system to have the following parameters
Gain Time
constant
Amplifier 10 0.01
Exciter 1 0.04
Generator 1 1
Sensor 1 0.05
Terminal voltage step response
The corresponding SIMULINK model is as following
Terminal voltage step response
The terminal voltage step response is
Time Series Plot:
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
data
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (seconds)
Rate feedback stabilizer
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
data
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (seconds)
Excitation system stabilizer PID controller
One of the most common controllers available commercially is the
proportional integral derivative controller (PID). The PID controller is
used to improve the dynamic response as well as to eliminate the
steady state error. The derivative controller adds a finite zero to the
open loop transfer function and the integral controller adds a pole at
origin.
By using the PID controller the response settles very quickly with a
negligibly small overshoot. The PID controller reduces the steady state
error to zero.
Excitation system stabilizer PID controller
The block diagram of AVR compensated with a PID controller is
Excitation system stabilizer PID controller
The terminal voltage step response after using PID controller is
Time Series Plot:
1.4
1.2
0.8
data
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (seconds)
The response settles in about 0.8 seconds with a very small overshoot.
Thank You