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REPORTERS:

DELOS REYES, MISCHELLE M.


DIONELA, MARK JOHN M.
BAñAGA, MARY JANE
ESTIMO, BEA NOREEN
ZAMBALES, CLAUDINE
RAFAEL, ANGELIQUE
VELASCO, CIARA MAE
BEHAVIORISM
WHAT IS BEHAVIORISM?
 Is a systematic approached to understanding the
behavior of human and animals.
 is a worldview that operates on a principle of
“stimulus-response.”
 All behavior caused by external stimuli (operant
conditioning).
 It’s goal is to promote the scientific study of behavior.
KEY CONCEPTS OF BEHAVIORISM
 Behaviorism is a worldview that assumes a learner is
essentially passive, responding to environmental
stimuli.
 The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa)
and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement
or negative reinforcement.
 Both positive reinforcement and negative
reinforcement increase the probability that the
antecedent behavior will happen again.
THREE TYPES OF BEHAVIORISM
1. Methodological behaviorism
 is a normative theory about the scientific conduct of
psychology.
 It claims that psychology should concern itself with
the behavior of organisms (human and nonhuman
animals).
 Methodological behaviorism is a dominant theme in
the writings of John Watson (1878–1958).
2. Psychological behaviorism

 is a research program within psychology.


 It purports to explain human and animal behavior in
terms of external physical stimuli, responses, learning
histories, and (for certain types of behavior)
reinforcements.
 work of Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), Edward Thorndike
(1874–1949), as well as Watson.
 Its fullest and most influential expression is B. F.
Skinner's work on schedules of reinforcement.
3. Analytical or logical behaviorism
 is a theory within philosophy about the meaning or
semantics of mental terms or concepts. It says that the
very idea of a mental state or condition is the idea of a
behavioral disposition or family of behavioral
tendencies, evident in how a person behaves in one
situation rather than another.

 work of Gilbert Ryle (1900–76) and the later work of


Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–51)
PROPONENTS
1. John B. Watson (1878- 1958)
“Father of Behaviorism”

 Watson emphasized the need for focusing scientific


inquiry on observable behaviors rather than" thinking"
which defined as non-observable phenomena by him.
 Apart from that, he also opposes the study of internal
mental events as well as denied any existence of the mind.
His thinking was greatly influenced by Pavlov. He had
adopted the classically conditioned S-R (Stimulus-
Response) habit as the basic unit of learning and extended
it to human learning (J. E. Ormrod, 2008).
2. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
(1849-1936)
 On 1883, Pavlov had developed his theory of "nervism"
which he defined as a physiological theory which tries to
prove that the nervous system controls the greatest
possible number of bodily functions.
 Apart from that, he had won the Nobel Prize in 1904 due
to their publication on the developed of a small part of the
stomach called the "Pavlov pouch”
 psychophysiology and psychopathology. This led to a new
psychology oriented school of physiology and stimulated
ideas of many aspects of human behaviour.
3. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

 Skinner called his philosophy of science as radical


behaviorism.
 He defined behavior as anything the organism does.
 Skinner stated that "Behaviorism is a formulation
which makes possible an effective experimental
approach to human behavior. It is a working
hypothesis about the nature of a subject matter".
 He invented SKINNER BOX.
4. Albert Bandura (1925-2017)

 Originator of social cognitive theory who is probably


best known for his modeling study on aggression,
referred to as the “Bobo doll” experiment, which
demonstrated that children can learn behaviors
through the observation of adults.
 “Fortunately, most human behavior is learned
observationally through modeling from others.”
5. Edward Thorndike(1898)

 Is famous in psychology for his work on learning


theory to lead the development of operant
conditioning within behaviorism.]

 Classical conditioning-depends on developing


association between events.
 Operant conditioning-involves learning from the
consequences of our behavior.
BEHAVIORISM IN RELATION TO
EDUCATION
 This theory is relatively simple to understand because
it relies only on observable behavior and describes
several universal laws of behavior.
 Its positive and negative reinforcement techniques
can be very effective– such as in treatments for human
disorders including autism, anxiety disorders and
antisocial behavior.
 Behaviorism is often used by teachers who reward or
punish student behaviors.
PROGRESSIVISM
WHAT IS PROGRESSIVISM?
 believe that education should focus on the whole child,
rather than on the content or the teacher.
 This educational philosophy stresses that students
should test ideas by active experimentation.
 Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise
through experiencing the world. It is active, not passive.
 The learner is a problem solver and thinker who makes
meaning through his or her individual experience in the
physical and cultural context.
 Effective teachers provide experiences so that students
can learn by doing.
FOUR MAIN GOAL OF
PROGRESSIVISM
Reformers aim to restore economic opportunity and
correct injustice by:
 1) protecting social welfare
 2) promoting moral improvement
 3) creating economic reform and
 4) fostering industrial efficiency
KEY COMPONENTS OF
PROGRESSIVISM
 Progressivism was the reform movement that ran from
the late 19th century through the first decades of the
20th.

 The Progressives believed that these changes marked


the end of the old order and required the creation of a
new order appropriate for the new industrial age.
TYPES OF PROGRESSIVISM
1. Rational progressivism
 is a movement that is innately optimistic, result-
oriented, ideologically malleable, prone to elitism, and
based around the rational promotion of good ideas.

2. Radical progressivism
 is a movement that is innately pessimistic, process-
oriented, ideologically rigid, prone to demagoguery,
and based around the radical battle of will that is the
class struggle.
PROPONENTS
1. Theodore Roosevelt
(1858-1919)

 Founder of Progressivism.

 American President of the Republican Party and later


the Progressive Party declared that he "always believed
that wise progressivism and wise conservatism go
hand in hand".
2. Friedrich Wilhelm August
Fröbel (1782–1852)

 was a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for


modern education based on the recognition that children
have unique needs and capabilities.
 He believed in "self-activity" and play as essential factors in
child education.
 The teacher's role was not to indoctrinate but to encourage
self-expression through play, both individually and in
group activities.
 He created the concept of kindergarten.
3. JOHN DEWEY(1859-1952)

 was its foremost proponent.


 One of his tenets was that the school should improve
the way of life of our citizens through experiencing
freedom and democracy in schools.
 Shared decision making, planning of teachers with
students, student-selected topics are all aspects. Books
are tools, rather than authority.
PROGRESSIVISM IN RELATION TO
EDUCATION
 Democracy is education. Schools teach what society is,
and prepare children for life in a democratic society.
 Second the child is the curriculum which means that
curriculum is based on children and what they need to
know to prepare them for their future.
 Third it also brought vision that schools were beautiful
places where children could learn and grow instead of
the prison environment where kids hate to be which is
what many schools in society are like today.