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Lenses

© D Hoult 2008
When light goes through glass (or any other
transparent substance), its speed changes
When light goes through glass (or any other
transparent) substance, its speed changes

This can cause it to change its direction of motion


When light goes through glass (or any other
transparent) substance, its speed changes

This can cause it to change its direction of motion

The change in direction is called refraction of light


image
real
image
By calculation
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1
=
v
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm

1 1 _ 1
=
v 3 5
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm

1 1 _ 1 5 _ 3
= =
v 3 5 15
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm

1 1 _ 1 5 _ 3
= =
v 3 5 15

Therefore v=
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm

1 1 _ 1 5 _ 3
= =
v 3 5 15

Therefore v = 7.5 cm
image
virtual
image
By calculation
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1
=
v 5 3
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1 3 _ 5
= =
v 5 3 15

Therefore v=
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1 3 _ 5
= =
v 5 3 15

Therefore v = - 7.5 cm
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1 3 _ 5
= =
v 5 3 15

Therefore v = - 7.5 cm the negative tells us


By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1 3 _ 5
= =
v 5 3 15

Therefore v = - 7.5 cm the negative tells us


that the image is virtual