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Lenses

When light goes through glass (or any other
transparent substance), its speed changes
When light goes through glass (or any other
transparent) substance, its speed changes

This can cause it to change its direction of motion

When light goes through glass (or any other
transparent) substance, its speed changes

The change in direction is called refraction of light

image
real
image
By calculation
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1
=
v
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm

1 1 _ 1
=
v 3 5
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm

1 1 _ 1 5 _ 3
= =
v 3 5 15
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm

1 1 _ 1 5 _ 3
= =
v 3 5 15

Therefore v=
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 3 cm u = 5 cm

1 1 _ 1 5 _ 3
= =
v 3 5 15

Therefore v = 7.5 cm
image
virtual
image
By calculation
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1
=
v 5 3
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1 3 _ 5
= =
v 5 3 15

Therefore v=
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1 3 _ 5
= =
v 5 3 15

Therefore v = - 7.5 cm
By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1 3 _ 5
= =
v 5 3 15

Therefore v = - 7.5 cm the negative tells us

By calculation

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 _ 1
=
v f u

f = 5 cm u = 3 cm

1 1 _ 1 3 _ 5
= =
v 5 3 15

Therefore v = - 7.5 cm the negative tells us

that the image is virtual