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The Effects of Earthquakes

Topic Overview:

1) Damage to Buildings and Lifelines


2) Effects on the Ground
3) Human and Financial Losses
SEISMIC HAZARDS:
Dangers posed by large earthquakes

• Ground Shaking - shake


• Ground Rupture - cut
• Liquefaction - very soft soil
• Landslides - slope failure
• Tsunami - waves

Secondary Hazards:

• Fire

• Lateral spreading, etc.


Intense shaking + Weak structure = Building damage or collapse

Hyatt Hotel in Baguio City after the magnitude 7.8 earthquake of July 16, 1990
Direct and indirect earthquake effects

Picture from Fundamentals of earthquake engineering by: Amr S. Elnashai & Luigi Di Sarno
Damage to Buildings and Lifelines
 Extensive structural damage is suffered by buildings, bridges,
highways and other lifelines during earthquakes.
Lifelines
those services that are vital to the health and safety of
communities and the functioning of urban and industrial
regions.

Damage to lifelines imposes devastating economic


effects on the community.

These include electric power, gas, water and wastewater


systems. Infrastructures, such as transportation systems
(highways and railways), bridges, ports and airports are
also classifi ed as lifelines.
THE LUZON EARTHQUAKE

 Magnitude 7.8

 JULY 16, 1990

 4:26 pm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1990_Luzon_earthq
uake
OCCURRENCE

The earthquake occurred on the


Philippine fault system, a well-known
strike-slip fault zone.

The rupture produced a 125 km-long


surface scarp stretching from Dingalan,
Aurora to Cuvapo, Nueva Eciia.
Baguio City was isolated from the
rest of the Philippines for 48 hours
after the quake.
BAGUIO CITY: DAMAGE TO
BUILDINGS

 Baguio City, a popular tourist destination, situated


about 1,500 m (1 mile) above sea level, was among
the areas hardest hit by the earthquake.

 The collapsed and damaged buildings in Baguio City


included hotels, factories, government and university
buildings, and homes..[
HYATT TERACES HOTEL: 80 DEAD
BAGUIO CITY: DAMAGE TO LIFELINE
SYSTEMS

 Electric, water and communication lines were destroyed.

 Kennon Road, the main vehicular route to Baguio, as well


as other access routes to the mountain city, were shut down
by landslides
FATALITIES

An estimated 1,621 people were killed in the


earthquake, with most of the fatalities located in the
Central Luzon and Cord-illera region
Effects on the Ground
-Analysis of earthquake induced damage
indicates that ground effects are a serious
contributor to damage of the built environment

-In addition to direct shaking effects, earthquakes


may lead to several forms of ground failure which
cause damage to the built environment.
Hazard 1: GROUNDRUPTURE

➢Fissuring or faulting along the surface

➢The creation of new or the renewal of


movements of old fractures, oftentimes with the
two blocks on both sides moving in opposite
directions
Seismic Hazards

Ground
Rupture
Ground Rupture and Fissuring
Taiwan Earthquake, 1999
Hazard 2: Liquefaction
- A process that transforms the
behavior of a body of
sediment from that of a solid
to that of a liquid
Liquefaction: -The ground loses strength and structures
built on top of it may sink and tilt.-
Liquefaction in Hinunangan, Southern Leyte

Photo courtesy of PHIVOLCS


HINUNANGAN JULY 2007 QRT Team

Brgy. Das-ay
Hazard 3: Landslides and Rockfalls
Hinunangan, Southern Leyte July 19, 2007 11:10 PM
Magnitude 5.5 Earthquake

Intensity VII in
Hinunangan

Landslide
in Brgy.
Biasong
Ground Failure - Landslide
INTENSE shaking +
➢ Slope
➢ Vegetation
➢ Water content
➢ Pre-existing
structures
ESTIMATED IMPACTS OF WORST CASE SCENARIO EARTHQUAKE
(Magnitude=7.2 West Valley Fault)

Four out of ten buildings and houses will be damaged


Public Purpose Buildings: Heavily Damaged 8 - 10 %
Schools 1412, Hospitals 177, Fire
Fighting 124, Police 43, MMDCC
Organizations and 17 LGU City Partly Damaged 20 – 25 %
and Municipal Halls 53

Residential buildings heavily damaged 13%


or collapsed
170,000
25.6% or
350,000
dead
With population of 9,932,560 90% from pressure of

injured 120,000
Human and Financial Losses
-During the twentieth century, over 1,200
destructive earthquakes occurred worldwide and
caused damage estimated at more than $ 10 billion
(Coburn and Spence, 2002 ).
-If these costs are averaged over the century, annual
losses are about $ 10 billion. Monetary losses from
earthquakes are increasing rapidly. Between 1990
and 1999, annual loss rates were estimated at $ 20
billion, twice the average
Earthquake damage in Bohol placed at P2.5B
-Magnitude on the Richter scale
-It affected the whole Central Visayas region, particularly Bohol and Cebu
-Deadliest earthquake in the Philippines in 23 years since the 1990 Luzon earthquake.
-A total of 195 people died, 651 injured and 12 still missing
Figures on evacuees, evacuation centres and
damaged houses by province in Region VII
Bohol earthquake damages P75.15 million
worth of roads and bridges
-The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) said Wednesday that damage to roads and
bridges in Bohol and Cebu had been estimated at P75.15 million.

-23 bridges that collapsed cost P57.8 million.

-In Cebu, partial damage to seven bridges amounts to P17.67 million.

Roads are impassable after the earthquake (photo from Betsy COLLAPSED Abatan Bridge connecting Cortes and Maribojoc
Manapsal’s FB account) towns

http://motioncars.inquirer.net/16899/bohol-earthquake-damages-p75-15-million-worth-of-roads-and-bridges
Historical church
damaged in 2013
Earthquake