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HYPERLOOP

PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

Presented by
Jishnu G Rajan
S8 Mechanical
Roll No ; 35
Journal 1
The Next Contender in High Speed Transport Elon Musks Hyperloop
Mark Sakowski
University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL
ABSTRACT
Elon Musk, progressive futurist and business magnate has proposed a fifth mode of transportation
called the Hyperloop. Just as he did with the resurrection of electric vehicle, and the privatization of
space flight, Musk is taking the established concepts of the vactrain and maglev technology and is
attempting to bring it back into the spotlight but with key improvements. This paper attempts to
provide a brief historical literature review of High Speed Transport to Very High Speed Transit
(VHST) and to discuss the limitations of the existing and theoretical technologies of Maglev trains and
evacuated tube transport. The Hyperloop is proposed as the next contender in High Speed Transport,
and a simplified energy analysis is performed to aid in evaluating the feasibility of the Hyperloop. This
paper also attempts to highlight several features of the Hyperloop that distinguishes it from traditional
vactrains and evacuated tube technologies by using capsules or pods to travel in a medium-pressure
environment as opposed to a difficult-to-maintain vacuum environment. A diffuser-compressor-nozzle
system has also been proposed to overcome the Kantrowitz Limit. This paper reviews the Hyperloop
concept and its specific advantages to the future development of a cost-effective and sustainable high-
speed mass transport technology.
Journal 2
Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger
Pod
Jeffrey C. Chin, Justin S. Gray, Scott M. Jones, Jeffrey J. Berton
NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH
ABSTRACT
Hyperloop is a new mode of transportation proposed as an alternative to California’s high speed rail project, with the
intended benefits of higher performance at lower overall costs. It consists of a passenger pod traveling through a tube
under a light vacuum and suspended on air bearings. The pod travels up to transonic speeds resulting in a 35 minute travel
time between the intended route from Los Angeles and San Francisco. Of the two variants outlined, the smaller system
includes a 1.1 meter tall passenger capsule traveling through a 2.2 meter tube at 700 miles per hour. The passenger pod
features water-based heat exchangers as well as an on-board compression system that reduces the aerodynamic drag as it
moves through the tube. Although the original proposal looks very promising, it assumes that tube and pod
dimensions are independently sizable without fully acknowledge the constraints of the compressor system on the pod
geometry. This work focuses on the aerodynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the two largest systems: the
tube and the pod. Using open-source toolsets, a new sizing method is developed based on one-dimensional
thermodynamic relationships that accounts for the strong interactions between these sub-systems. These additional
considerations require a tube nearly twice the size originally considered and limit the maximum pod travel speed to
about 620 miles per hour. Although the results indicate that Hyperloop will need to be larger and slightly slower than
originally intended, the estimated travel time only increases by approximately
five minutes, so the overall performance is not dramatically affected. In addition, the pro- posed on-board heat
exchanger is not an ideal solution to achieve reasonable equilibrium
ABSTRACT

Existing conventional modes of transportation of people consists of four unique types: rail, road, water,
and air. These modes of transport tend to be either relatively slow (e.g., road and water), expensive (e.g.,
air), or a combination of relatively slow and expensive (i.e., rail). Hyperloop is a new mode of transport
that seeks to change this paradigm by being both fast and inexpensive for people and goods. Hyperloop is
also unique in that it is an open design concept, similar to Linux. Feedback is desired from the community
that can help advance the Hyperloop design and bring it from concept to reality.
Hyperloop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are transported at both low and high speeds
throughout the length of the tube. The capsules are supported on a cushion of air, featuring pressurized
air and aerodynamic lift. The capsules are accelerated via a magnetic linear accelerator affixed at various
stations on the low pressure tube with rotors contained in each capsule. Passengers may enter and exit
Hyperloop at stations located either at the ends of the tube, or branches along the tube length
CONTENTS
2 INTRODUCTION
CONCEPT.
WHOSE IDEA
THEN , NOW
WHAT IS HYPERLOOP
COMPONENTS OF HYPERLOOOP
CONSTRUCTION
SPECIFICATIONS
WORKING PRINCIPLE
ADVANTAGES .
DISADVANTAGES
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
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Hyperloop is a proposed mode of passenger and freight transportation that
propels a pod-like vehicle through a near-vacuum tube at more than airline
speed. The alpha version of the proposal published on the SpaceX website,
describes claims of the design of the system, as well as its function.
The concept of high-speed travel in tubes has been around for decades, but
there has been a resurgence in interest in pneumatic tube transportation
systems since the concept was reintroduced, using updated technologies,
by Elon Musk after 2012.
THE CONCEPT
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 A capsule full of people in a


low pressure tube elevated
on pylon goes really fast
 This system can achieve an average
speed of 598 mph (962 km/h), and a
top speed of 760 mph (1,220 km/h).

 Hyperloop consists of a low pressure


tube with capsules that are transported
at both low and high speeds
throughout the length of the tube.
WHOSE IDEA ???
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ELON MUSK
The hyperloop was proposed by Elon Musk.
He is also the owner and CEO of Pay-Pal, Tesla motors and Space-X
THEN , NOW
Hyperloop concept was invented and designed in 1812 by the British Mechanical
Engineer George Wenger .
The concept of hyperloop is now developed and redesigned by the billionaire Elon Musk
in 2012 .
While the term Hyperloop is in some countries a registered trademark of the Space
Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) for the high speed transportation of
passengers and goods in partially evacuated tubes, the Hyperloop concept has been
explicitly open-sourced by Musk and SpaceX, and others have been encouraged to take
the ideas and further develop them.
WHAT IS HYPERLOOP???
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Existing conventional modes of transportation of people consists of four
unique types: rail, road, water, and air. These modes of transport tend to be
either relatively slow (i.e., road and water), expensive (i.e., air), or a combination
of relatively slow and expensive .
It is the fifth mode generation of transportation .
Hyperloop is a new mode of transport that seeks to change this paradigm by
being both fast and inexpensive for people and goods.
Hyperloop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are transported
at both low and high speeds throughout the length of the tube .
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COMPONENTS OF HYPERLOOP
TUBES
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The tube is made of steel. Two tubes will be welded together in a side by side
configuration to allow the capsules to travel both directions.
Pylons are placed every 100 ft (30 m) to support the tube.
Solar arrays will cover the top of the tubes in order to provide power to the
system.
Tubes are made by the new material ‘ VIBRANIUM ‘

 The inner diameter of the tube is optimized to be 7 ft 4 in. (2.23


m) which is small enough to keep material cost low while large enough
to provide some alleviation of choked air flow around the capsule.
CAPSULE
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Sealed capsules carrying 28 passengers each that travel along the interior of the tube
A larger system has also been sized that allows transport of 3 full size automobiles with
passengers to travel in the capsule.
The capsules are supported via air bearings that operate using a
Compressed air reservoir and aerodynamic lift .
The maximum width is 4.43 ft (1.35 m) and maximum height is 6.11 ft
(1.10 m). With rounded corners, this is equivalent to a 15 ft2 (1.4 m2)
frontal area, not including any propulsion or suspension components.
The capsules are accelerated via a magnetic linear accelerator
affixed at various stations on the low pressure tube with rotors contained
in each capsule.
PROPULSION
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Linear accelerations are constructed along the length of the tube at various
locations to accelerate the capsule.

Stators are located on the capsules via the linear acceleration.


The propulsion system has these basic requirements:
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1. Accelerate the capsule from 0 to 300 mph (480 kph) for relatively low speed
travel in urban areas.
2. Maintain the capsule at 300 mph (480 kph) as necessary, including during
ascents over the mountains surroundings.
3. To accelerate the capsule from 300 to 760 mph (480 to 1,220 kph) at 1g at
the beginning of the long coasting section along the I-5 corridor.
4. To decelerate the capsule back to 300 mph (480 kph) at the end of the I5
corridor.
CONSTRUCTION
PYLONS /
PILLARS

 The tube will be supported by pillars which constrain the tube in the vertical
direction but allow longitudinal slip for thermal expansion as well as
dampened lateral slip to reduce the risk posed by earthquakes.
 These minimally constrained pillars to tube joints will also allow a smoother
ride. Specially designed slip joints at each stations will be able take any tube
length variance due to thermal expansion .
 The average spacing is 100 ft (30 m), which means there will be near 25,000
pillars supporting both tubes and solar panels. The pillars will be 20 ft (6 m)
tall whenever possible but may vary in height in hilly areas or where obstacles
are in the way
CAPSULES
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 COMPRESSOR
 One important feature of the capsule is the onboard compressor, which
serves two purposes. This system allows the capsule to traverse the relatively
narrow tube without choking flow that travels between the capsule and the tube walls
by compressing air that is bypassed through the capsule.
 It also supplies air to air bearings that support the weight of thecapsule
throughout the journey.
 The compressor is powered by a 1,160 hp (865 kW) onboard electric motor . The
motor has an estimated mass of 606 lb (275 kg), which includes power electronics.
AIR BEARINGS & SUSPENSION
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Air bearings (also known as bearings that use a thin film aero statical or
aero dynamical of pressurized air to provide an exceedingly low
friction load-bearing interface between surfaces. The two surfaces do not
touch.
 Suspending the capsule within the tube presents a substantial technical
challenge due to transonic cruising velocities. Conventional wheel and axle
systems become impractical at high speed due frictional losses and dynamic
instability .
 Externally pressurized and aerodynamic air bearings are well suited for the
Hyperloop due to exceptionally high stiffness, which is required to maintain
stability at high speeds.
 Used to break the Kantrowitz limit .
 ROTOR
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 The rotor of the linear accelerators is very simple – an aluminum blade 49 ft (15
m) long, 1.5 ft (0.45 m) tall, and 2 in. (50 mm) thick .
 Current flows mainly in the outer 0.4 in. (10 mm) of this blade, allowing it to
be hollow to decrease weight and cost.
 The gap between the rotor and the stator is 0.8 in. (20 mm) on each side.
 A combination of the capsule control system and electromagnetic centering
forces allows the capsule to safely enter, stay within, and exit such a precise
gap
 ENERGY STORAGE COMPONENTS ( BATTERIES)
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 Energy storage allows this linear accelerator to only draw its average power of
8,000 hp (6 MW) (rather than the peak power of 70,000 hp or 52 MW) from its
solar array .
 Building the energy storage element out of the same lithium ion cellsavailable
in the Tesla Model Sis economical .
 A battery array with enough power capability to provide the worst-case
smoothing power has a lot of energy – launching 1 capsule only uses 0.5% of
the total energy – so degradation due to cycling is not an issue.
TUBES
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 STATOR
 The stator is mounted to the bottom of the tube over the entire 2.5 miles (4.0
km) it takes to accelerate and decelerate between 300 and 760 mph (480 and
1,220 km). It is approximately 1.6 ft (0.5 m) wide (including the air gap) and 4.0 in.
(10 cm) tall, and weighs 530 lb/ft (800 kg/m).
 The number of turns per slot also varies along the length of the stator,allowing
the inverter to operate at nearly constant phase voltage, which simplifies the
power electronics design.
 The two halves of the stator require bracing to resist the magnetic forces of 20
lbf/ft (300N/m) that try to bring them together
SPECIFICATIONS
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Height : 3.66 ft ( 1.1 m )


Width : 4.50 ft ( 1.35m )
Passengers : 24-30
Speed : 760MPH ( 1236KPH)
The doors on each side will open in a gullwing (or possibly sliding) manner to
allow easy access during loading and unloading.
The luggage compartment will be at the front or rear of the capsule.
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22 WORKING PRINCIPLE
 Simply it have the same working principle of Air Hockey
 The pods would accelerate to cruising speed gradually using a linear electric
motor and glide above their track using passive magnetic levitation or air
bearings.
 It is levitated and propelled forward using powerful electromagnets. This
itself considerably reduces losses due to friction, as the train is literally gliding
over the track and is not in contact with the track. Hence there are no
frictional losses allowing the train to move at high velocities. The absence of
air in the hyperloop will further increase the efficiency by nearly eliminating
losses due to air drag and make it much faster.
 The capsules are supported on a cushion of air, featuring pressurized air and
aerodynamic lift. The capsules are accelerated via a magnetic linear
accelerator affixed at various stations on the low pressure tube with rotors
contained in each capsule.
 Residual air in the tube is captured, compressed, and forced through holes in
23 skis attached to the bottom of the capsule. The gap between the skis and the
tube during operation is between 0.5mm and 1.3mm.
 The air pressure in the tube is very low, a capsule traveling at 700mph will
cause significant air pressure at the nose of the vehicle, which must be
considered in the design. Since the tube has a larger cross-section than the
capsule, some air flows around the vehicle. Even so, compressor fans that
actively transfer air from the front to the rear of the capsule must be installed

PRINCIPLES FOLLOWED

1. LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR


2.MAGNETIC LEVITATION
Linear Induction Motor
A Linear Induction Motor (LIM) is an advanced version of rotary induction motor
which gives a linear translational motion instead of the rotational motion. The
stator is cut axially and spread out flat. In this type of motor, the stator and rotor
are called primary and secondary respectively. The secondary of the linear
induction motor consists of a flat aluminium conductor with a ferromagnetic
core.
MAGNETIC LEVITATION
Maglev is short for Magnetic Levitation in which trains float on a guideway using the
principle of magnetic repulsion. Each magnet has two poles. Now if you play with two
magnets, you'll realize that opposite poles attract, whereas similar poles repel. This
repulsive property of magnets is used in Maglev trains.
ADVANTAGES
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Low cost than high speed trains
High speed than all other transportation methods
More convenient
Immune to weather
Earthquakes resistant
Sustainable self powering
Safer
More convenient
DISADVANTAGES
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Tube pressurization
Less movable space for passengers
Turning will be critical
No answer for equipment malfunction, accidents, emergency evacuation
Experience could be frightening.
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CONCLUSION
As it has number of advantages it will very helpful for transport public aswell
as goods in a very short time ( at top speed of 1220 kmph) and also in low
cost.
It is new concept so there is some future work will be required for
development of this project.

Hyperloop could transport people, vehicles, and freight between Los Angeles
and San Francisco in 35 minutes.
REFERENCES
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 http://www.spacex.com/sites/spacex/files/hyperloop_alpha.pdf
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperloop
 http://www.spacex.com/hyperloop
 http://hyperloop.tamu.edu/
 https://www.quora.com/Tesla-Motors-company-What-is-the-working-principle-of-the-
hyperloop-proposed-by-Elon-Musk
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