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DETERMINING THE

POLARITIES OF A
MOLECULE
• The polarity of a molecule
ultimately is determined by
the shape of the molecule
and whether it is
symmetrical.
STEP 1

• start by determining if the bonds in the molecule


are polar or non polar covalent bonds. check the
electronegativity of the elements and if the
difference between the two elements is:
• 0 - 0.1 - nonpolar covalent

• 0.2 - 1.9 - polar covalent


• 2.0 and up - ionic
STEP 2

• if the bond type is in the ionic range,


treat the bond as if it is polar when
determining the polarity of the
molecule.
• Note: if all the bonds are non polar
covalent, the molecule will be nonpolr
regardless of the shape.
STEP 3

• check the shape of the molecule. (if it is


symmetrical or not)
• The following shapes are symmetrical if all
the outside atoms are the same:
• linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal
bipyramidal, octahedral, square planar,
linear (trigonal planar family)
STEP 4

• if the shape is symmetrical,


the molecule will be non
polar, otherwise, the
molecule is polar.
DETERMINING
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
BETWEEN MOLECULES
THERE ARE BASICALLY FOUR DIFFERENT
TYPES OF IMF BETWEEN PARTICLES OF
MATTER

• ionic bond

• hydrogen bond

• dipole-dipole

• London forces
TO DETERMINE THE TYPE OF FORCES BETWEEN
MOLECULES YOU NEED TO CHECK THE POLARITY OF
MOLECULE.

• if the molecule is:

• non polar - London forces only

• polar with H bonded to N,O or F -


Hydrogen Bond
• polar without H bonded to N,O or F -
dipole to dipole
TAKE NOTE

• The strength of the London forces increase as the


molecule gets heavier.(more electrons to generate the
forces)
• dipole-dipole increases with larger differences between
electronegativities of the element.
• everything has London forces, including molecules with
dipole-dipole and hydrogen bond. however dipole-dipole
and hydrogen bonding are more dominant and therefore
we generally don’t list Lindon forces with molecules
having these forces.
PROPERTIES BASED ON
INTERMOLECULAR
FORCES
. There are several important
properties molecules have that are
dependent on the type of forces
between the particles. There are 4 we
will be concerned with: solubility,
vapor pressure, melting (freezing)
point and boiling point.
. There are several important
properties molecules have that are
dependent on the type of forces
between the particles. There are 4 we
will be concerned with: solubility,
vapor pressure, melting (freezing)
point and boiling point.
SOLUBILITY
• In order for a solution to form the substances must be
able to interact with each other. To do so, they must
have similar IMF’s.

GENERAL RULE: Like dissolves like.


o Polar substances will dissolve polar substances.
o Nonpolar substances will dissolve nonpolar
substances.
o They do not dissolve each other.
SOLUBILITY
To determine if a substance will dissolve
in another substance, you must check
the polarity of the substances. If they are
the same, dissolving occurs.
EXAMPLES:
Determine whether the following
molecules will dissolve in water or CCl4.
H2O is polar and CCl4 is nonpolar.
VAPOR PRESSURE
- The vapor pressure of a liquid is defined as the
pressure generated by the vapor above a liquid at
equilibrium.

-The amount of vapor that escapes from a liquid


depends on the strength of the IMF’s between the
particles of the liquid.

o The stronger the IMF, the less vapor that will


escape → low vapor pressure.
o The weaker the IMF, the more vapor that will
escape → high vapor pressure.
BOILING POINT
 The boiling point of a liquid is defined as the
temperature at which the liquid’s vapor pressure is
equal to atmospheric pressure. Therefore, it is very
much dependent on the vapor pressure of the liquid.

 The vapor pressure of a liquid will increase as


temperature increases.

 The higher the vapor pressure a liquid has the less


heat it needs for its vapor pressure to become equal to
atmospheric
pressure. Therefore, the higher the vapor pressure, the
lower the boiling point.
BOILING POINT
.Summary:
 The stronger the IMF, the lower
the vapor pressure, the higher
the boiling point.
 The weaker the IMF, the higher
the vapor pressure, the lower the
boiling point.
MELTING (FREEZING) POINT
 In order to melt a substance the forces
between the particles of the substance
must be broken. The stronger the forces
the more heat is needed to do so, and,
therefore the higher the melting point.
Summary
 The stronger the IMF, the higher the
melting point.
 The weaker the IMF, the lower the
melting point.
• The following shapes are symmetrical if all the outside atoms are the same:

• linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral, square planar, linear (trigonal
planar family)