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DEFINITION & KIND OF ETHICS

FA I D AT U U M M I (176090100111004)
T S AN I YA H N U R K H O L I L A H (176090100111008)

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B I O L O G Y D E PAR T M E N T
FA C U LT Y O F M AT H A N D S C I E N C E
B R AW I J AYA U N I V E R S I T Y
ETHICS
Ethics is concerned with what is good for individuals and society and is also described as
moral philosophy.
The term is derived from the Greek word ethos which can mean custom, habit, character or
disposition.

Ethics covers the following dilemmas:


• how to live a good life
• our rights and responsibilities
• the language of right and wrong
• moral decisions - what is good and bad?
MORALITY
Morality is a unique feature of the life of human beings.
It is deeply influenced by several cultural factors, such
as history, traditions, education, religious beliefs, etc.
Morals or morality is about the actual patterns, norms
and rules of behaviour that do exist – side by side
Ethics Morals
Terminology Greek ethos (plural : ta etha)  a From the Latin mos (plural : mores) ->
habitual abode, customs, character, custom.
morals, feelings, attitudes, ways of
thinking.

Means The rules of conduct recognized in Principles or habits with respect to right or
respect to a particular class of human wrong conduct. While morals also
actions or a particular group or culture prescribe dos and don'ts, morality is
ultimately a personal compass of right and
wrong.

Source Social system - External Individual - Internal


Concept The reflection of morals, Beliefs of the people about right and wrong
the personal mind / group that judge
whether or not a thing is true
Ethics Morals
Acceptability From a private individual or from a Transcends the culture and norms of society
community, institution or group within a
particular time and place

Flexibility Ethics are dependent on others for Usually consistent, although can change if
definition. They tend to be consistent an individual’s beliefs change.
within a certain context, but can vary
between contexts.

Linkages Ethics is not always followed by morals Moral is followed by ethics


4 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ETHIC
Autonomy (Otonomi)
Justice (Keadilan)
Beneficence (berbuat baik)
Non-maleficent (tidak merugikan)
Bioethics

Quasi-sociological science that offers solutions to the emerging moral conflicts in research,
development and utilization of biological resources
(Kepmen, 112/M/KP/X/2009)

Bioethics is a knowledge that links biology with the knowledge of human value
systems (Van Lensselear )

Bioethic is an ethical, social, legal, philosophical study related to health care and
biological sciences (Inseklopedia bioetik)

Bioethics is a science of human action and life-related science (International


asosiatiaon of bioethics )
REGULATIONS THAT RELATED TO BIOETHICS

Undang-Undang no. 18/2002

Undang-undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009

Undang-undang Nomor 21 Tahun 2004

Menteri negara riset dan teknologi nomor 112 /m/kp/x/2009


Ethics is not just about the theories and the
complex philosophical reasoning.
Ethics is everywhere.
KIND OF ETHICS BASED ON SUBJECT

General Individual
Ethic ethic
Ethics
Specific
Social Ethic
Ethic

Environment
Ethic
KIND OF ETHICS BASED ON APPROACH
Describe moral
behavior without giving
Descriptive
good and bad
judgment.

Value the character


Ethics Normative ethic
base on society norm

Directing attention to
the special meaning of
Metaetical ethics
the language of ethics,
analytical philosophy
KIND OF ETHICS

Ethic discussions are vary from socio-cultural to science technology.


• Socio-Cultural Ethic:
Socio-Cultural
Ethic Rules that adopted by a social order is the result of
human creations are created with the aim to maintain a
Religion Ethic good community relations and harmony.
Ethics Spatial-Temporal.
Research
Ethic ex: The way to respect people, bow, handshake.

Scientific
Ethics
KIND OF ETHICS

Ethic discussions are vary from socio-cultural to science technology.


• Religion Ethic:
Socio-Cultural concerns teachings and practices of what is right or
Ethic
wrong, good or bad, virtuous or vicious, from a religious
point of view. Religious ethics are the moral principles
Religion Ethic that guide religions and that set the standard for what is
Ethics and isn’t acceptable behavior.
Research Example : Protestant Ethic by Max Webber
Ethic

Scientific
Ethics
KIND OF ETHICS

Ethic discussions are vary from socio-cultural to science technology.


• Research Ethic:
Socio-Cultural
Ethic
analysis of ethical issues that are raised when people
are involved as participants in research. Educate and
monitoring researchers, then evidenced with ethic
Religion Ethic clearence. Three objectives :
Ethics - to protect human participants.
Research
Ethic - to ensure that research is conducted in a way that
serves. No Dual Use.
Scientific - to protect ethical issues, such as the management of
Ethics risk, protection of confidentiality and the process of
informed consent.
KIND OF ETHICS

Ethic discussions are vary from socio-cultural to science technology.


• Scientific Ethics:
Socio-Cultural
Ethic The values that are obeyed and followed in the
scientific and research world. The scientific values in
society need to be built in order to fix the way of
Religion Ethic thinking.
Ethics
Research
Ethic

Scientific
Ethics
WHY IS ETHICS IN RESEARCH SO IMPORTANT?
Research ethics intends to put boundaries to what is and is not
possible.
Although most research ethics developed
Malpractice records within the context of medical research,
research ethics is of crucial importance for
•Tuskegee (1932-1970), all scientific domains.
World Medical Association
study syphilis in African •Code of Ethics  International
people, but not give (established in Paris in Sociological Association
Penicillin that had been 1947) •Code of Ethics and Conduct  the British
found in 1943 adopted a declaration on Psychological Society
•Willowbrook (1950), the •The Oviedo Convention also sets
subject was children with
research ethics in 1964, standards for the use of the human
mental illness the Declaration of Helsinki, genome and research on human
embryos.
•Jewish hospital (1963) Finland. •UNESCO's Universal Declaration on
study immunology by Bioethics and Human Rights and the
injected cancer in elderly Council for International
people. •CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines for
Biomedical Research Involving Human
•Nuremberg Code (1947) Subjects
THE IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH ETHICS
Improve the purpose of research
Increase important value in group work
Making sure that researchers are accountable
Facilitate support from the public
Improve morale and social value
THE ETHICS REVIEW PROCEDURE

Ethic
Individual Ethic Ethic
Proposal Eligibility Follow Up
evaluation Screening Review
and Audit

If necessary
PROCEDURE TO OBTAIN ETHIC APPROVAL

Registration of the researcher; register data self-chairman of the


researcher so that simplify the administrative process

Registration of protocol; process to register protocol / research proposal


(protocol submission) done if the leader of the researcher has ID
code and done by uploading the related documents.
SUBMITION FLOW OF ETHIC REVIEW

Protocol and EC
request from KE Secretariat Ka. KEPK-BPPK
research
institutions
Publishing review
results KE Member
(Reviewer)
Repair Suggestions

Rejected
PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH ETHICS
DO GOOD & DO NO HARM
1. obtain informed consent from potential research participants
2. minimize the risk of harm to participants
3. protect their anonymity and confidentiality
4. avoid using deceptive practices
5. give participants the right to withdraw from your research.
Ethical Issues
•Privacy & data protection
•Informed consent
•Research on human embryos and fetuses
•Dual use
•Animal research
•Research involving developing countries
•Scientific misconduct
•Environment impact
THREE TIPS TO BE MORE ETHICALLY PREPARED
1. Try to integrate ethical and societal expertise into your research
projects
 More multidiscipline, more potential show up
2. Use existing codes of conduct for researchers
 Gain trust by code of conduct
3. Do not hesitate to seek advice
REFERENCE
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Brisbois, B. and Plamondon, K., 2018. The possible worlds of global health research: An ethics-focused
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Schroeder, D., Cook Lucas, J., Hirsch, F., Fenet, S. and Muthuswamy, V., 2018. Ethics Dumping Case
Studies from North-South Research Collaborations.
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engineering, 15(1), p.013001.
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