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Properties of injection-molded thermoplastic

polyester denture base resins


Hamanaka I, Takahashi I, Shimizu H. Properties of injection-molded thermoplastic polyester
denture base resins. Acta Odontologica Scandinavia 2014; 72: 139-44.

PEMBIMBING : HUBBAN NASUTION, DRG., MDSc.


PENYAJI : - OVILA ULFHA (130600083)
- LARISSA ROSAFINA (130600119)
- NARO IDA SARI G. MANIHURUK (130600092)
- AUDE LAYAKNI P. GIRSANG (130600076)
Pendahuluanhuluan

Smile Estethics adalah faktor penting untuk


mengevaluasi hasil perawatan ortodonti.
Dalam penelitian ini, dievaluasi perbedaan
dalam persepsi estetika dan variabel senyum
antara perawatan dengan ekstraksi dan tanpa
ekstraksi untuk jenis maloklusi yang berbeda
Bahan dan Metode

15 subjek ekstraksi
Grup I
(0-4mm)
15 subjek tanpa ekstraksi

Dievaluasi oleh:
90 Peserta - 10 Dokter gigi Umum
Dibagi Grup II 15 subjek ekstraksi
- -10 Dokter Spesialis
berdasarkan (>4mm) Ortodonti
overjet
15 subjek tanpa ekstraksi - 10 Orang Awam

15 subjek ekstraksi
Grup III
(<0mm)
15 subjek tanpa ekstraksi
Hasil
- Persepsi senyum untuk kelompok II  subyek dengan ekstraksi lebih tinggi daripada subjek
dengan tanpa pencabutan menurut penilaian dokter gigi spesialis ortodonti dan dokter gigi
umum.

- Subjek kelompok III dinilai lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan kelompok I dan II.

- Indeks bentuk lengkung, gigi insisivus rahang atas, dan lengkungan senyum lebih besar
dibanding subjek dengan ekstraksi.

- Dalam analisis regresi berganda, subjek tanpa ekstraksi dan kelompok III memiliki korelasi
negatif dengan skor estetika. Gigi insisivus maksila, tampilan nomor gigi, dan rasio koridor
bukal berkorelasi positif dengan skor estetika
Removable
partial RPDs without
dentures (RPD) The profit is: metal clasps
without metal are retained
clasps at the
fabricated 1. Esthetically undercuts of
from an high
injection-
the
molded abutment
thermoplastic 2. Metal teeth by
resin have allergies are means of the
been used in eliminated denture base
dental material
practice
Some injection-
The flexibility of The mechanical
molded
the injection- properties of
thermoplastic
molded polyamide
resins
thermoplastic dimensional
(polyamide,
resin affects the accuracy of
polyester and
ease of insertion polyamide and
polycarbonate)
and removal of bonding strength
used as denture of
the RPD,
base materials for autopolymerizing
Retention of the
RPDs without repair resin to
RPD, The stress to
metal clasps polyamide were
the abutment
have been studied.
teeth
tested
The residual monomer, water sorption, water solubility of
polyester, mechanical properties of polyester and bonding
strength of auto-polymerizing repair resin to polyester have also
been investigated.

The mechanical properties of polycarbonate dimensional


accuracy of polycarbonate and bonding strength of auto-
polymerizing repair resin to polycarbonate were examined as
well.
Although the
In previous constituents
studies, of both
(Nylon 12 and polyamide
Nylon denture base
PACM12) resins are
were similar, their
compared. properties are
different.
polyethylene
terephthalate
injection-molded copolymer
thermoplastic polyester
denture base resins for RPDs
without metal clasps. polycycloalkylene
terephthalate
copolymer
Polyethylene terephthalate Insufficient information
copolymer denture base about polycycloalkylene
materials have been terephthalate copolymer
investigated. denture base resin

The properties compared


to the two polyester
denture base resins  not
extensively investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Mechanical properties
Two injection-molded thermoplastic polyester denture
base resins were used.

Flexural
properties
ISO 1567 and
ISO
1567:1999/Amd
1:2003
Charpy
impact
strength
SPECIMEN

The flexural
properties

Accuracy  micrometer
Gypsum molds with Polished (600-grit SiC at three locations to within
cavities (65 l x 10 w x 3.3 h) paper) a 0.05-mm tolerance for
width and height.
Gypsum molds with cavities (50
l x 6 w x 4 h)

Polished (600-grit SiC paper)

Accuracy  micrometer at
three locations to within a 0.2-
Charpy impact test mm tolerance for width and
height.

Notch (type A) in the middle 


ISO 179

Edgewise notch 1.2 mm deep 


4.8 mm residual depth
SPECIMEN

Flexural properties Charpy impact test


specimens specimens

37C for 50 h in 37C for 7 days in


distilled water distilled water
Half of the specimens were Ten specimens were
then thermocycled between fabricated per group in each
5–55C water for 50,000 1-min denture base material–
cycles. thermocycling combination.
Flexural Each specimen was

Strength placed on a 50 mm- long


support for three-point
flexural testing

Flexural
strength at the
proportional
limit (FS- PL)
A vertical load was
applied at the mid-point
Elastic modulus of the specimen at a
of the crosshead speed of 5
specimens mm/min on a load testing
were tested. machine
The FS-PL (MPa) was calculated according to the
following formula:
FS − PL = 3PL / 2bd2

P = load at the proportional


limit b = width of the specimen
L = span distance (50 mm) d = thickness of the
specimen.

The load at the proportional limit was determined


from each load-deflection graph.
Elastic • Elastic Modulus=FL3 / 4bd3 D
• F = the load at a conventient point in
Modulus the straight line portion of the
load/deflection graph and D= the
(GPa) deflection at load F

• Impact strength = (J1-J2)x103/bh


Charpy • Where J1= the value of energy
Impact absorbed by the specimen,J2= The
friction energy of the system,b= the
test depth behind the notch and h= the
height of the specimen.
Shear strength
The specimens of each denture base material were
fabricated according to the manufacturers’ instructions
in gypsum molds with cavities
(10 mm long x 10 mm wide x 3 mm high)

Each specimen was embedded in an autopolymerizing resin material with an acryl ring and the surfaces of the
resins were polished with 400-grit Sic paper

To define the bonding area,sticky tape with a 6-mm diameter hole and a teflon ring (1mm thick) with a circular
hole (5.0-mm inner diameter,6.0-mm outer diameter) were placed on the surface to be bonded on each
specimen.
The powder and liquid of an autopolymerizing repair resin(unifast III live pink,GC,Tokyo
Japan, Lot numbers: powder 1005173, liquid 1006281) were mixed and applied inside the
teflon ring. The mixing ratio of powder to liquid was
2:1 (w/w)

After polymerization, te sticky tape and teflon ring were gently removed and all the
specimens were immersed in distilled water at 37⁰C for 24 h

Half of the specimens were then thermocycled between 5-55⁰ C water for 10.000 1-min
cycles. Ten specimens were fabricated per group for each denture base material-
thermocycling combination
The shear bond strengths were determined using a
load testing machine (ASG-J, Shimadzu Co. Ltd., Tokyo,
Japan) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. All the
tests were performed under uniform atmospheric
conditions of 23.0 ± 1C and 50 ± 1% relative humidity.

A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (STATISTICA,


StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, OK) was used to study the
differences among the denture base materials and the
effect of thermocycling. A one-way ANOVA
(STATISTICA) was used if there was a significant
difference resulting from an interaction between these
two variables (p = 0.05). The Newman-Keuls post-hoc
comparison (p = 0.05) (STATISTICA) was applied when
appropriate.
Results

One-way ANOVA
One-way ANOVA revealed that there were
showed that there were significant differences in
Two-way ANOVA
Two-way ANOVA significant differences in the elastic modulus
indicated that there were
revealed that there were FS-PL(p<0,05). The FS-PL of (p<0,05). The elastic
significant differences in
significant differences in the EstheShot was modulus of the EstheShot
the elastic modulus
the FS-PL caused by the significantly higher than was significantly higer
caused by the variabeles
variables of denture base that of the EstheShot than that of the EstheShot
of denture base material
material and the effect of Bright possessed Bright. The thermocycled
and the effect of
thermocycling and their significantly higher FS-PL specimens showed a
thermocycling, and their
interactions (p< 0,05) compared to the non- significantly higher elastic
interaction ( p<0,05)
thernocycled specimens modulus compared to the
(Table III) non-thermocycled
specimens (Table II)
Table II. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the mechanical
properties of the polyester denture base resins (n = 10).

Denture base Flexural strength Elastic modulus Charpy impact


Thermo-cycling at proportional limit
material (FS-PL) (MPa) (GPa) strength (kJ/m2)

EstheShot (PET) No 32.6 (2.7)a 2.11 (0.04) 4.32 (0.49)a

EstheShot (PET) Yes 33.4 (3.3)a 2.42 (0.08) 1.36 (0.39)a

EstheShot Bright
No 24.2 (0.7) 1.59 (0.02) 67.96 (4.78)
(PCAT)
EstheShot Bright
Yes 27.1 (3.0) 1.79 (0.03) 41.95 (23.42)
(PCAT)

a Groups that were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05).
Table III. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the shear bond strength (MPa) of
an auto-polymerizing repair resin to the denture base resins and their failure mode
(n = 10).
Denture base material Thermo-cycling Shear bond strength (MPa) Failure mode C/M/A

EstheShot (PET) No 15.9 (1.3)a 10/0/0

EstheShot (PET) Yes 16.2 (1.6)a 10/0/0

EstheShot Bright (PCAT) No 11.7 (1.5)b 5/4/1

EstheShot Bright (PCAT) Yes 10.0 (1.2)c 1/5/4

Acron (PMMA) No 11.7 (1.5)b 0/0/10

Acron (PMMA) Yes 9.4 (0.6)c 0/0/10

a ,b,c Groups
that were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). Failure mode: C, cohesive;M, mixture of cohesive and
adhesive; A, adhesive.
The impact strength of the
The variables of denture
EstheShot Bright
base material and effect of
specimens was
thermocycling and their
significantly higher than
interaction (p < 0.05) were
that of the EstheShot
tested using the two-way
specimens, while the
ANOVA, which showed
thermocycled EstheShot
significant differences in the
Bright specimens were
shear bond strength. The
significantly lower than the
one-way ANOVA revealed
non-thermocycled
significant differences in the
EstheShot specimens
shear bond strength (p <
(Table II).
0.05).
The shear bond strength was significantly higher than that of
the other specimens. There were no significant differences
between EstheShot Bright and Acron for either the
nonthermocycled specimens or the thermocycled specimens.
The thermocycled EstheShot Bright and Acron specimens
showed significantly lower shear bond strength compared to
the non-thermocycled specimens (Table III).
Discussion

Based on these results, it seems


that the mechanical properties of
With regard to mechanical PCAT are completely different
properties,, flexural strength at the from those of PET but are similar
proportional limit (FS-PL) of PET to those of polyamide (Nylon
was higher than that of PCAT, the PACM12). In the polymer science
elastic modulus of PET was higher field, PCAT generally softness,
than that of PCAT and the impact which is inherent in their
strength of PCAT molecular composition, compared
was higher than that of PET.. The to PET materials. Therefore, this
impact strength of PCAT in the property may explain how the
present study was twice that of mechanical properties of
polyamide (Nylon PACM12) polyester denture base materials
affect its.
The elastic moduli of PET and
PCAT significantly increased after
PET remained brittle after
thermocycling, probably
thermocycling. However, their FS-
because static fatigue caused by
PL did not weaken. Therefore,
thermal stress affected the elastic
these resins will generally
moduli of these resins. the impact
strengthen after stiffening. These
strength of PCAT significantly
findings were similar to those for
decreased, causing brittleness
PET in the previous study
after thermocycling, again likely
due to static fatigue caused by
thermal stress
The examination of the failure mode  It seems the nature of polyesters tends to
showed that all of the PET specimens affect the bonding of the two polyester
fractured cohesively, PCAT specimens denture base materials. However, the
a mixture of cohesive and adhesive
shear bond strength of PCAT was not
fracture. All the PMMA specimens
displayed adhesive fracture. In the significantly different from that of PMMA,
polymer science field, PCAT materials which may explain why the bonding of
generally have better chemical auto-polymerizing resin to PCAT is equal
resistance than PET materials, which
to that of a conventional heat-polymerized
means that PCAT denture base
material has weaker bonding to PMMA. Thus, it seems that the bonding of
autopolymerizing resin compared to autopolymerizing resin to PCAT will not be
PET denture base material. affected during clinical use.
In this study, the mechanical properties and bonding strength of
auto-polymerizing resin to two injection-molded thermoplastic
polyester denture base resins were compared. Although the
compositions of these polyester denture base resins are similar,
their properties are different. Investigations of the flexibility of the
injection- molded thermoplastic resin are important for dental
practice. There are currently several kinds of injection-molded
thermoplastic denture base resins used clinically for RPDs
without metal clasps, but the information is insufficient.
Therefore, more testing of the properties of the various types of
injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins should be
performed.
Conclusions

1. The properties of the 2. The polycycloalkylene


injection-molded terephthalate copolymer
thermoplastic denture denture base resin had
base resins composed significantly lower flexural
of polyethylene strength at the
terephthalate copolymer proportional limit, lower
and polycycloalkylene elastic modulus, higher
terephthalate copolymer impact strength and
were different from each lower shear bond
other. strength compared to the
polyethylene
terephthalate copolymer
denture base resin.
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