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© 2005, Prentice Hall

Avogadro’s Number

grams of carbon.

• Its numerical value is 6.02 × 1023.

• Therefore, a 12.01 g sample of carbon contains 6.02 × 1023 carbon

atoms.

The Mole

• The mole (mol) is a unit of measure for an amount of a chemical

substance.

• A mole is Avogadro’s number of particles, that is 6.02 × 1023

particles.

1 mol = Avogadro’s Number = 6.02 × 1023 units

• We can use the mole relationship to convert between the number of

particles and the mass of a substance.

Mole Calculations

• We will be using the Unit Analysis Method again.

• Recall:

• First we write down the unit asked for

• Second we write down the given value

• Third we apply unit factor(s) to convert the given units to the

desired units

Mole Calculations I

•

Mole Calculations I

•

Molar Mass

• The atomic mass of any substance expressed in grams is the molar

mass (MM) of that substance.

• The atomic mass of iron is 55.85 amu.

• Therefore, the molar mass of iron is 55.85 g/mol.

• Since oxygen occurs naturally as a diatomic, O2, the molar mass of

oxygen gas is 2 times 16.00 g or 32.00 g/mol.

Calculating Molar Mass

• The molar mass of a substance is the sum of the molar masses of

each element.

• What is the molar mass of magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2?

• The sum of the atomic masses is:

24+ 2(14 + 16 + 16 + 16) =

24 + 2(62) = 148 amu

• The molar mass for Mg(NO3)2 is 148 g/mol.

Mole Calculations II

• Now we will use the molar mass of a compound to convert

between grams of a substance and moles or particles of a

substance.

6.02 × 1023 particles = 1 mol = molar mass

• If we want to convert particles to mass, we must first convert

particles to moles and than we can convert moles to mass.

Mass-Mole Calculations

• What is the mass of 1.33 moles of titanium, Ti?

• We want grams, we have 1.33 moles of titanium.

• Use the molar mass of Ti: 1 mol Ti = 48 g Ti

Mole Calculations II

• What is the mass of 2.55 × 1023 atoms of lead?

• We want grams, we have atoms of lead.

• Use Avogadro’s number and the molar mass of Pb

Mole Calculations II

• How many O2 molecules are present in 0.470 g of

oxygen gas?

• We want molecules O2, we have grams O2.

• Use Avogadro’s number and the molar mass of O2

Gas Density

• The density of gases is much less than that of liquids.

• We can calculate the density of any gas at STP easily.

• The formula for gas density at STP is:

= density, g/L

molar volume in liters

Calculating Gas Density

• What is the density of ammonia gas, NH3, at STP?

• First we need the molar mass for ammonia;

• 14+ 3(1) = 17 g/mol

• The molar volume NH3 at STP is 22.4 L/mol.

• Density is mass/volume

Molar Mass of a Gas

• We can also use molar volume to calculate the molar

mass of an unknown gas.

• 1.96 g of an unknown gas occupies 1.00L at STP.

What is the molar mass?

• We want g/mol, we have g/L.

Mole-Volume Calculation

How many moles of methane are present?

• We want moles, we have volume.

• Use molar volume of a gas: 1 mol = 22.4 L

Mass-Volume Calculation

• We want mass O3, we have 3.36 L O3.

• Convert volume to moles then moles to mass:

Molecule-Volume Calculation

• How many molecules of hydrogen gas, H2, occupy

0.500 L at STP?

• We want molecules H2, we have 0.500 L H2.

• Convert volume to moles and then moles to

molecules:

Mole Unit Factors

• We now have three interpretations for the mole:

• 1 mol = molar mass

• 1 mol = 22.4 L at STP for a gas

• This gives us 3 unit factors to use to convert between moles,

particles, mass, and volume.

Law of Definite Composition

contain the same elements in a constant proportion by mass”.

• Sodium chloride is always 39.3% sodium and 60.7% chlorine by

mass, no matter what its source.

• Water is always 11.2% hydrogen and 88.8% oxygen by mass.

Law of Definite Composition

hydrogen and oxygen in the same percent by mass.

Percent Composition

• The percent composition of a compound lists the mass percent of

each element.

• For example, the percent composition of water, H2O is:

• 11% hydrogen and 89% oxygen

• All water contains 11% hydrogen and 89% oxygen by mass.

Calculating Percent Composition

• There are a few steps to calculating the percent composition of a

compound. Lets practice using H2O.

• One mole of H2O contains 2 mol of hydrogen

and 1 mol of oxygen.

• 2(1.01 g H) + 1(16.00 g O) = molar mass H2O

• 2.02 g H + 16.00 g O = 18.02 g H2O

Calculating Percent Composition

• Next, find the percent composition of water by comparing the

masses of hydrogen and oxygen in water to the molar mass of

water:

2.02 g H

× 100% = 11.2% H

18.02 g H2O

16.00 g O

× 100% = 88.79% O

18.02 g H2O

Percent Composition Problem

• TNT (trinitrotoluene) is a white crystalline substance that explodes

at 240°C. Calculate the percent composition of TNT, C7H5(NO2)3.

g C7H5(NO2)3

C7H5(NO2)3.

Percent Composition of TNT

84.00 g C

× 100% = 37.00% C

227.00 g TNT

5.00 g H

× 100% = 2.20% H

227.00 g TNT

42.00 g N

× 100% = 18.50% N

227.00 g TNT

96.00 g O

× 100% = 42.30% O

227.00 g TNT

Empirical Formulas

• The empirical formula of a compound is the simplest whole

number ratio of ions in a formula unit or atoms of each element in

a molecule.

• The molecular formula of benzene is C6H6

• The molecular formula of octane is C8H18

Calculating Empirical Formulas

• We can calculate the empirical formula of a compound from its

composition data.

• We can determine the mole ratio of each element from the mass to

determine the formula of radium oxide, Ra?O?.

• A 1.640 g sample of radium metal was heated to produce 1.755 g

of radium oxide. What is the empirical formula?

• We have 1.640 g Ra and 1.755-1.640 = 0.115 g O.

Calculating Empirical Formulas

• The molar mass of radium is 226.03 g/mol and the molar mass of

oxygen is 16.00 g/mol.

1 mol Ra

1.640 g Ra × = 0.00726 mol Ra

226.03 g Ra

1 mol O

0.115 g O × = 0.00719 mol O

16.00 g O

• We get Ra0.00726O0.00719. Simplify the mole ratio

by dividing by the smallest number.

• We get Ra1.01O1.00 = RaO is the empirical formula.

Empirical Formulas from

Percent Composition

• We can also use percent composition data to calculate empirical

formulas.

• Assume that you have 100 grams of sample.

• Benzene is 92.2% carbon and 7.83% hydrogen, what is the

empirical formula.

• If we assume 100 grams of sample, we have 92.2 g carbon and

7.83 g hydrogen.

Empirical Formulas from

Percent Composition

• Calculate the moles of each element:

1 mol C

92.2 g C × = 7.68 mol C

12.01 g C

1 mol H

7.83 g H × = 7.75 mol H

1.01 g H

• The ratio of elements in benzene is C7.68H7.75.

Divide by the smallest number to get the formula.

7.68 7.75

C 7.68 H 7.68 = C1.00H1.01 = CH

Molecular Formulas

• The empirical formula for benzene is CH. This represents the ratio

of C to H atoms of benzene.

• The actual molecular formula is some multiple of the empirical

formula, (CH)n.

• Benzene has a molar mass of 78 g/mol. Find n to find the

molecular formula.

=

CH 13 g/mol formula is C6H6.

Conclusions

• Avogadro’s number is 6.02 × 1023 and is one mole of any

substance.

• The molar mass of a substance is the sum of the atomic masses of

each element in the formula.

• At STP, 1 mole of any gas occupies 22.4 L.

Conclusions Continued

• We can use the following flow chart for mole calculations:

Conclusions Continued

• The percent composition of a substance is the mass percent of each

element in that substance.

• The empirical formula of a substance is the simplest whole number

ratio of the elements in the formula.

• The molecular formula is a multiple of the empirical formula.

Exercises

Calculate the molar mass and the percent compostion of

the following substances:

1. Li2CO3

2. CS2

3. CHCl3

4. C6H8O6

5. KNO3

6. Mg3N2

7. K2SO4

8. Ca3(PO4)2

9. C6H6

10. NaI

Percent Yield

•

Example 1

• In an experiment forming ethanol,, the theoretical yield is

50.5g. The actual yield is 46.8g. What is the percent

yield?

%yield =Actual/Theoretical x 100

%yield=46.8/50.5 x 100

%yield= 92.7%

Example 2

23.8g. What is the percent yield?

%yield=23.8/35.5 x 100

%yield = 67.04%

Example 3

•

Example 4

•

Limiting Reactants

• Limiting Reactant

• used up in a reaction

• determines the amount of product

• Excess Reactant

• added to ensure that the other reactant is

completely used up

• cheaper & easier to recycle

Use the steps below to solve the following

problem to determine the limiting reactant.

1. Write a balanced equation.

2. Do a separate mass to mass problem starting with each

reactant. The smaller answer is correct.

To find out how much of the excess reactant is left

over,

1. Start with the initial mass of the limiting reactant and

2. Do a mass to mass problem to determine how much of

the excess reactant was needed.

3. Subtract that value from the initial mass of the excess

reactant.

1. What mass of hydrogen gas at STP is produced

from the reaction of 50.0g of Mg and 75.0 grams

of HCl? How much of the excess reagent is left

over (in grams)?

Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl2(s) + H2(g)

Do a standard mass to mass problem starting with each reactant

2

24.31g Mg 1mol Mg 1mol H2

2

36.46 g HCl 2mol HCl 1mol H2

How much of the excess reactant is left

over?

• Start with the initial mass of the limiting reactant and do a

mass to mass with the other reactant.

36.46g HCl 2mol HCl 1mol Mg

Thus, 50.0 grams – 25.0 grams =

25.0 grams Mg leftover!

2. What mass of calcium sulfate can be produced

from the reaction of 1000 g calcium phosphate with

980 g H2SO4?

Ca3(PO4) 2 + 3H2SO4 3CaSO4 + 2H3PO4

310.18g 1 mol Ca3(PO4)2 1mol CaSO4 = 1316 g

98.09g H2SO4 3mol H2SO4 1mol CaSO4 = 1360 g

Limiting reactant problems

• How many grams of HI can be formed from 2.00 g H2

and 2.00 g of I2?

• How many grams of CO2 can be formed from 1.44 g

C3H8 and 2.65 g of O2?

• Sodium Chloride can be prepared by the reaction of

Sodium metal and chlorine gas. Suppose that 6.70 mole

Na reacts with 3.20 mol Cl2. How many moles of NaCl

are produced?

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