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RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT

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Pertemuan ke-3

JOB ANALYSIS

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DEFINITION

JA :the procedure for determining the duties and skill requirement of a job and a kind of person who should be hired for it

JD : a list of job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationship, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilitiesproduct of a JA

JS : a list of job’s “human requirements” that is, the requisite education, skills, per sonality and so onanother product of a JA

JA WILL PRODUCE JD and JS DOING BY SUPERVISOR OR HR SPECIALIST

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TYPES OF INFORMATION COLLECTED

(WHAT)

Work activities
Work
activities
Information Collected Via Job Analysis
Information
Collected Via
Job Analysis
Human requirements
Human
requirements
Human behaviors
Human
behaviors
TYPES OF INFORMATION COLLECTED (WHAT) Work activities Information Collected Via Job Analysis Human requirements Human behaviors
Job context
Job
context
TYPES OF INFORMATION COLLECTED (WHAT) Work activities Information Collected Via Job Analysis Human requirements Human behaviors

Machines, tools, equipment, and

work aids

Performance

standards

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USE OF JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION

(WHAT FOR)

Recruitment and

Selection

Information Collected Via Job Analysis
Information
Collected Via
Job Analysis
EEO Compliance
EEO
Compliance

Compensation

USE OF JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION (WHAT FOR) Recruitment and Selection Information Collected Via Job Analysis EEO

Discovering

Unassigned

Duties

USE OF JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION (WHAT FOR) Recruitment and Selection Information Collected Via Job Analysis EEO

Performance

Appraisal

Training
Training
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FIGURE 41USES OF JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION

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FIGURE 42

PROCESS CHART FOR ANALYZING A JOB’S

WORKFLOW

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STEPS IN JOB ANALYSIS

Steps in doing a job analysis: 1 Decide how you’ll use the information. 2 Review relevant
Steps in doing a job analysis:
1
Decide how you’ll use the information.
2
Review relevant background information.
3
Select representative positions.
4
Actually analyze the job.
5
Verify the job analysis information.
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Develop a job description and job specification.
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FOUR BASIC TECHNIQUES TO COLLECT

INFORMATION FOR JA

(HOW)

Interview Direct observation Questionnaires

Participants diary logs

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METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION: THE INTERVIEW

Information Sources

  • Individual employees

  • Groups of employees

  • Supervisors with knowledge of the job

Advantages

  • Quick, direct way to find overlooked information

Disadvantages

  • Distorted information

Interview Formats

  • Structured (Checklist)

  • Unstructured

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FIGURE 43 JOB ANALYSIS

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR

DEVELOPING JOB

DESCRIPTIONS

Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview

job incumbents, or have them fill it out.

Source: www.hr.blr.com. Reprinted with permission of the publisher, Business and Legal Reports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT © 2004.

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FIGURE 43 JOB ANALYSIS

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR

DEVELOPING JOB

DESCRIPTIONS (CONT’D)

Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview job incumbents, or have them fill it out.

Source: www.hr.blr.com. Reprinted with permission of the publisher, Business and Legal Reports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT © 2004.

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JOB ANALYSIS: INTERVIEWING GUIDELINES

The job analyst and supervisor should work together

to

identify the workers who know the job best.

Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee.

Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open- ended questions and provides space for answers.

Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance

and frequency of occurrence. After completing the interview, review and verify

the data.

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JOB ANALYSIS INTERVIEW CHECKLIST

  • 1. What is your job title?

  • 2. To whom are you responsible?

  • 3. Who reports directly to you? (An organization chart would be helpful.)

  • 4. What is the main purpose of your job, ie in overall terms, why does the job exist and what are you expected to do?

  • 5. What are the main activities you carry out to achieve that overall purpose?

Please list them in turn, describing briefly what you do and not, in detail, how

you do it.

  • 6. Would you please provide some information on the size of your job in such terms as output or sales targets, budget, number of items processed, number of people for whom you have overall responsibility, number of customers?

  • 7. What decisions are you authorized to make without reference to your manager?

  • 8. What equipment or tools do you use?

  • 9. What knowledge and skills do you require to do your work?

    • 10. What are the major challenges/problems you face in carrying out your work?

This resource is part of a range offered free to academics and/or students using Armstrong’s Essential Human Resource Management Practice as part of their course. For more academic resources and other FREE material, please visit www.koganpage.com/resources and then click on Academic Resources.

CONDUCTING A JOB ANALYSIS INTERVIEW

  • 1. Work to a logical sequence of questions that help interviewees to order their thoughts.

  • 2. Probe to establish what people really do answers to questions are often vague.

  • 3. Ensure that job holders are not allowed to get away with inflated descriptions of their work.

  • 4. Sift out irrelevant information.

  • 5. Obtain a clear statement from job holders of the nature of each of their main tasks and the outcomes expected from performing them.

  • 6. Find out what authority they have to make decisions and the amount of guidance given by their manager.

  • 7. Ask for instances of the activities they carry out and the decisions they make.

  • 8. Ask what knowledge and skills they have to possess and what equipment/tools they use.

  • 9. Find out what qualifications and experience they need to do the work.

    • 10. Allow the job holder ample opportunity to talk by creating an atmosphere of trust.

This resource is part of a range offered free to academics and/or students using Armstrong’s Essential Human Resource Management Practice as part of their course. For more academic resources and other FREE material, please visit www.koganpage.com/resources and then click on Academic Resources.

METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION: QUESTIONNAIRES

Information Source

Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe

their job-related duties and

responsibilities

Questionnaire Formats

Structured checklists Open-ended questions

Advantages

Quick and efficient way to gather information from

large numbers of employees

Disadvantages

Expense and time consumed in preparing and

testing the questionnaire

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METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION: OBSERVATION

Information Source

  • Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs

METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION: OBSERVATION Information Source  Observing and noting the physical activities

Advantages

  • Provides first-hand information

  • Reduces distortion of information

Disadvantages

  • Time consuming

  • Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle

  • Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity

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METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION: PARTICIPANT DIARY/LOGS

Information Source

Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of

what they do and the time

spent on each activity

METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION: PARTICIPANT DIARY/LOGS Information Source  Workers keep a chronological diary/

Advantages

Produces a more complete picture of the job

Employee participation

Disadvantages

Distortion of information

Depends upon employees to

accurately recall their

activities

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FIGURE 44 EXAMPLE OF

POSITION/JOB

DESCRIPTION INTENDED FOR USE ONLINE

Source: www.ncf.edu/humanresources/documents/ A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

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FIGURE 44 EXAMPLE OF

POSITION/JOB

DESCRIPTION

INTENDED FOR USE

ONLINE (CONT’D)

Source: www.ncf.edu/humanresources/documents/ A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

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FIGURE 44 EXAMPLE OF

POSITION/JOB

DESCRIPTION

INTENDED FOR USE

ONLINE (CONT’D)

FIGURE 4 – 4 EXAMPLE OF POSITION/JOB DESCRIPTION INTENDED FOR USE ONLINE (CONT’D) Source: www.ncf.edu/humanresources/documents/ A&P%20Final.doc.

Source: www.ncf.edu/humanresources/documents/ A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

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QUANTITATIVE JOB ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Quantitative Job Analysis
Quantitative Job
Analysis

Department of Labor (DOL) Procedure

Position Analysis Questionnaire

Functional Job Analysis

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FIGURE 45

PORTION OF A

COMPLETED PAGE

FROM THE POSITION ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE

The 194 PAQ elements are grouped into

six dimensions. This exhibits 11 of the

“information input” questions or elements.

Other PAQ pages contain questions

regarding mental processes, work output,

relationships with others, job context, and

other job characteristics.

Source: www.ncf.edu/humanresources/documents/ A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

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TABLE 41 BASIC DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WORKER FUNCTIONS

Data People Things 0 Synthesizing 1 Coordinating 0 Mentoring 1 Negotiating 0 Setting up 1 Precision
Data
People
Things
0
Synthesizing
1 Coordinating
0 Mentoring
1 Negotiating
0 Setting up
1 Precision working
2 Operating/
2
Analyzing
2 Instructing
controlling
3
Compiling
3 Supervising
4
Computing
4 Diverting
5
Copying
5 Persuading
6
Comparing
6 Speaking/signaling
3 Driving/operating
4 Manipulating
5 Tending
6 Feeding/offbearing
7
Serving
7 Handling
8
Taking
instructions/helping
Basic Activities

Note: Determine employee’s job “score” on data, people, and things by observing his

or her job and determining, for each of the three categories, which of the basic functions

illustrates the person’s job. “0” is high; “6,” “8,” and “7” are lows in each column.

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FIGURE 46 SAMPLE REPORT BASED ON

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB

ANALYSIS

TECHNIQUE

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FIGURE 4

7 SELECTED O*NET GENERAL WORK ACTIVITIES 26
7
SELECTED
O*NET
GENERAL
WORK
ACTIVITIES
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WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS

Job

Identification

Sections of a Typical Job Description
Sections of a
Typical Job
Description

Job

Specifications

Job Summary
Job
Summary
WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS Job Identification Sections of a Typical Job Description Job Specifications Job Summary Working
WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS Job Identification Sections of a Typical Job Description Job Specifications Job Summary Working
Working Conditions
Working
Conditions

Responsibilities and Duties

WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS Job Identification Sections of a Typical Job Description Job Specifications Job Summary Working
WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS Job Identification Sections of a Typical Job Description Job Specifications Job Summary Working

Standards of Performance

Authority of the Incumbent 27
Authority of the
Incumbent
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FIGURE 48 SAMPLE JOB DESCRIPTION, PEARSON

EDUCATION

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FIGURE 48 SAMPLE JOB DESCRIPTION, PEARSON EDUCATION

(CONT’D)

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G

MANAGER

DESCRIPTI ON FROM STANDARD OCCUPATIO

NAL

CLASSIFICA

TION

Source: www.bls.gov/soc/ soc_a2c1.htm. Accessed August 17, 2007.

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THE JOB DESCRIPTION

Job Identification

  • Job title

  • FLSA status section

  • Preparation date

  • Preparer

Job Summary

  • General nature of the job

  • Major functions/activities

Relationships

  • Reports to:

  • Supervises:

  • Works with:

  • Outside the company:

Responsibilities and Duties

  • Major responsibilities and duties (essential functions)

  • Decision-making authority

  • Direct supervision

  • Budgetary limitations

Standards of Performance and Working Conditions

  • What it takes to do the job successfully

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USING THE INTERNET FOR WRITING

DESCRIPTIONS

JOB

Standard Occupational

Classification (SOC)

O*NET Online

USING THE INTERNET FOR WRITING DESCRIPTIONS JOB Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) O*NET Online Source: O*Net™ is

Source: O*Net™ is a trademark of the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration. Reprinted by permission of O*Net.

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TABLE 42

SOC MAJOR GROUPS OF JOBS

11-0000

Management Occupations

13-0000

Business and Financial Operations Occupations

15-0000

Computer and Mathematical Occupations

17-0000

Architecture and Engineering Occupations

19-0000

Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations

21-0000

Community and Social Services Occupations

23-0000

Legal Occupations

25-0000

Education, Training, and Library Occupations

27-0000

Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations

29-0000

Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations

31-0000

Healthcare Support Occupations

33-0000

Protective Service Occupations

35-0000

Food Preparation and Serving-Related Occupations

37-0000

Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations

39-0000

Personal Care and Service Occupations

41-0000

Sales and Related Occupations

43-0000

Office and Administrative Support Occupations

45-0000

Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations

47-0000

Construction and Extraction Occupations

49-0000

Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations

51-0000

Production Occupations

53-0000

Transportation and Material Moving Occupations

55-0000

Military Specific Occupations

Note: Within these major groups are 96 minor groups, 449 broad occupations, and 821 detailed occupations.

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WRITING JOB SPECIFICATIONS

“What traits and experience are required to do this job well?”
“What traits and
experience are required
to do this job well?”

Specifications Based on Judgment

Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel

Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis

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FIGURE 410 PRELIMINARY

JOB

DESCRIPTION

QUESTIONNAIRE

Source: Reprinted from www.hr.blr.com with the permission of the publisher, Business and Legal Reports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT © 2004.

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WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS (CONT’D)

Step 1.

Decide on a Plan

Step 2.

Develop an Organization Chart

Step 3.

Use a Job Analysis/Description

Step 4.

Questionnaire Obtain Lists of Job Duties from

O*NET

Step 5.

Compile the Job’s Human

Requirements from

O*NET

Step 6.

Complete Your Job Description

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FIGURE 411 BACKGROUND DATA FOR EXAMPLES

Example of Job Title: Customer Service Clerk

Example of Job Summary: Answers inquiries and gives directions to customers, authorizes cashing of customers’

checks, records and returns lost charge cards, sorts and reviews

new credit applications, works at customer service desk in department store.

Example of One Job Duty: Authorizes cashing of checks:

authorizes cashing of personal or payroll checks (up to a specified amount) by customers desiring to make payment by check. Requests identification—such as driver’s license—from customers and examines check to verify date, amount, signature, and endorsement. Initials check and sends customer to cashier.

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WRITING JOB SPECIFICATIONS (CONT’D)

Steps in the Statistical Approach

  • Analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance.

  • Select personal traits that you believe should

  • Test candidates for these traits.

predict successful performance.

  • Measure the candidates’ subsequent job performance.

  • Statistically analyze the relationship between the human traits and job performance.

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JOB ANALYSIS IN A “JOBLESS” WORLD

Job Design: Specialization and Efficiency?
Job Design:
Specialization and
Efficiency?
Job Rotation
Job
Rotation

Job

Enlargement

Job

Enrichment

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JOB ANALYSIS IN A “JOBLESS” WORLD (CONT’D)

Dejobbing the Organization
Dejobbing the
Organization

Using Self- Managed Work Teams

Flattening the Organization

Reengineering

Business

Processes

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COMPETENCIES

Are demonstrable characteristic of the person that make performance possible (basic skills an employee needs to do job)

In terms of measureable, observable, behavioral ( knowledge, skill and behavior)

Concerning general competencies, leadership competencies, technical competencies

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COMPETENCY-BASED JOB ANALYSIS

Competencies

  • Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job.

Reasons for Competency-Based Job Analysis

  • To support a high-performance work system.

  • To create strategically-focused job descriptions.

  • To support the performance management process in fostering,

measuring, and rewarding:

  • General competencies

  • Leadership competencies

  • Technical competencies

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COMPETENCY-BASED JOB ANALYSIS (CONT’D)

How to Write Job Competencies-Based Job Descriptions

  • Interview job incumbents and their supervisors

Ask open-ended questions about job responsibilities and activities.

Identify critical incidents that pinpoint success on the job.

  • Use off-the-shelf competencies databanks

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COMPETENCY ANALYSIS CHECKLIST

  • 1. In general, what sort of things do role holders do and how do they behave when they are performing their role effectively?

  • 2. In general, what sort of behaviour in this role is likely to result in poor performance?

  • 3. Does this role involve much teamwork, and if so, how would you know if the role holder is effective?

  • 4. Does this role involve much written or spoken communication, and if so, how would you know if the role holder is effective?

  • 5. Does the role involve dealing with customers, and if so, how would you know if the role holder is effective?

  • 6. To what extent is the role holder involved in managing people, and how would you know if the role holder is effective?

  • 7. To what extent is the role holder involved in solving problems and making decisions independently, and how would you know if the role holder is effective?

  • 8. How much initiative is the role holder expected to take; how would you

This resource is part of a range offered free to academics and/or students using Armstrong’s Essential Human Resource Management Practice as part of their course.

know if the role holder is effective?

For more academic resources and other FREE material, please visit www.koganpage.com/resources and then click on Academic Resources.

FIGURE 412 THE SKILLS MATRIX FOR ONE JOB AT BP

FIGURE 4 – 12 THE SKILLS MATRIX FOR ONE JOB AT BP Note: The light blue

Note: The light blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job.

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DISKUSSI

JD makes it rigid ? Less team work ? Traditional analysiswhat are accomplished Competency based analysishow to accomplish the work with their competence

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