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TOPIC

Active & Passive Voice

Youtube Channel :
Spoken English with Azhar Nawaz
TOPIC
Active & Passive Voice

Why do we need to convert active voice into passive while both


sentences (active & passive) carry the same meaning?

The answer is that the passive voice is an impersonal verb form


which creates distance (and avoids making accusations), hence, it
does not hurt the listener so it is considered polite as compare to
active voice.

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Active & Passive Voice

In order to learn about Active & Passive voice, it is important to


know that sentences which have Transitive verbs can only be
converted into passive voice and the sentences which have
intransitive verbs cannot be converted into passive voice, lets study-
what is the difference between transitive & intransitive verbs:-

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Active & Passive Voice

1. Transitive verbs- Transitive verb is a verb which needs an


object to give the complete sense, moreover action of the subject
passes over to the object, as:-

1. Ali eats. (incomplete sense)


2. Ali eats an apple. (complete sense)
3. An apple is eaten by Ali.

If we say Ali eats, it gives some meaning but in order to know


that what is something that Ali eats, this sentence needs an object
(an Apple) to give to complete information. Hence in this sentence
verb eats is called a transitive verb. So, this sentence can be
converted into passive.

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Active & Passive Voice

1. Intransitive verbs- Intransitive verb is a verb which does not


needs an object to give the complete sense, moreover action of the
subject does not pass over to the object, as:-

1. Ali laughs.
or
2. Ali laughs loudly.

Such sentence cannot be converted into passive because verb laugh


does not need any object, hence it is called intransitive verb and
such sentences which have intransitive verbs cannot be converted
into passive.

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Active & Passive Voice

Let’s do some practice:-


1. He kicks a foot ball. (Transitive verb)
2. A foot ball is kicked by him. (Correct)
(Correct because verb ‘KICK’ is a transitive verb and it needs an
object to be kicked and action is passed over to the object)

1. He goes to school. (Intransitive verb)


2. The school is gone by him. (Incorrect)
(In correct because verb ‘GO’ is an intransitive verb and the action
‘GO’ is not passed over to the object).

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Active & Passive Voice

BUT- it may be noted that it’s not the verb that is Transitive or
Intransitive but it’s the use of the verb which makes it
Transitive or Intransitive, as:-

1. He runs faster. (Here verb run is intransitive)

2. He runs a business. (Here verb run is Transitive) and sentence


can be converted into passive, as – A business is run by him.

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Active & Passive Voice
However, there is a long list of some verbs which are always Intransitive
verbs and can only be remembered by practice. See the list given below
for reference:-
LIST OF INTRANSITIVE VERBS

agree appear arrive become


belong collapse consist cost
cough cry depend die
disappear emerge exist fall
go happen have hiccup / hic-cough
inquire knock (sound) laugh lie (recline or tell untruth)
live look last (endure) occur
remain respond result Revolt
rise sit sleep smile
sneeze stand stay swim

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Active & Passive Voice
Rules

To change an active voice sentence to a passive voice sentence:

Active = Subject + verb + object +extension-= S+V+O+Ext.


Passive = Object + Verb (3rd form) + by+ subject + extension=O+V (3rd) +by+S+Ext

Please remember that extension of the sentence is never changed, it remains the same
as it was mentioned in the active sentence. Like:-

1. Ali eats an apple, early in the morning every day.

2. An apple is eaten by all, early in the morning every day.

Make the object of the active sentence into the subject of the passive sentence.
Use the verb “to be” in the same tense as the main verb of the active sentence.
Use the past participle of the main verb of the active sentence
Add word ‘by’ before subject in the passive voice.

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Active & Passive Voice

Note - The following Tenses cannot be changed into Passive Voice:


1. Present perfect continuous tense
2. Past perfect continuous tense
3. Future perfect continuous tense
4. Future continuous tense

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Active & Passive Voice
ACTIVE PASSIVE
TENSE
(S+V+O) (O+V+S)
An apple is eaten by Ali.
PRE-IND Ali eats an apple.
(is, am, are + 3rd Verb Form)
An is being eaten by Ali.
PRE-CONT Ali is eating an apple.
(is being, am being, are being + 3rd Verb form)
An Apple has been eaten by Ali.
PRE-PERF Ali has eaten an apple.
(Has been, Have Been + 3rd verb form)

TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE


An apple was eaten by Ali.
PAST-IND Ali ate an apple.
(was, were + 3rd verb form)
An apple was being eaten by Ali.
PAST-CONT Ali was eating an apple.
(was being, were being + 3rd verb form)
An apple has been eaten by Ali.
PAST-PERF Ali has eaten an apple.
(Has been, have been + 3rd verb form)

TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE


An apple will be eaten by Ali.
FUT-IND Ali will eat an apple.
(Will be, Shall be + 3rd verb form)
Ali will have eaten an An apple will have been eaten by Ali.
FUT-PERF
apple. (will have been, shall have been +3rd verb form)

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Active & Passive Voice
RULES FOR MODAL VERBS

Words shown below are known as modal verbs in English grammar.

Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Must, Shall, Should, Ought
and word ‘BE’ is added after these modal verbs in passive voice, as-
Can be, Could be, May be, Might be, Will be, Would be, Must be,
Shall be, Should be.

Ali can drive a car. (Active)


A car can be driven by Ali. (Passive)

You should drink a glass of water now. (Active)


A glass of water should be drunk by you now. (Passive)

He must pass his exam with good marks. (Active)


His exam must be passed with good marks. (Passive)
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Active & Passive Voice

CHANGING INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES INTO THE


PASSIVE

Notes- The primary auxiliary verbs do, does or did do not appear
in the passive form, helping verb is, am, are, was, were are used
instead and question mark (?) is added in the end.

The verbs has, have, had, will, shall, can, may etc., do not
change their position at the beginning of the sentence when
the active voice is changed to the passive voice.

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Active & Passive Voice
Read the following sentences.
Active voice: Did she recognize you?
Passive voice: Were you recognized by her?
Active voice: Can anybody cure it?
Passive voice: Can it be cured (by anybody)?
Active voice: Who wrote this book?
Passive voice: By whom was this book written?
Active voice: Have you finished work?
Passive voice: Has the work been finished by you?
Active voice: When will they announce the results?
Passive voice: When will the results be announced (by
them)?
Active voice: Have you invited them?
Passive voice: Have they been invited by you?
Active voice: Will you help him?
Passive voice: Will he be helped by you?
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Active & Passive Voice

The question words


when, why, where, who or what

do not change their position at the beginning of the sentence when


the active voice is changed into the passive voice.

Note that
who changes to by whom
and whom is converted into who

What did he say? (Active Voice)


What was said by him? (Passive Voice)
Whom did you invite? (Active Voice)
Who was invited by you? (Passive Voice)

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Active & Passive Voice
CHANGING IMPERATIVE SENTENCES INTO THE PASSIVE

RULES:-
1. An active imperative sentence does not have a subject but it
starts with a verb, it has an order, request or advice, hence subject is
also not mentioned in the passive sentence.

2. in passive voice, imperative sentence begins with the word


‘LET’ and followed by object word ‘BE’ is added and ‘3RD’ form of
the verb is used.

When the active voice is in the negative, the passive voice is also in
negative. However it takes the form: Let + object + not + be + past
participle.

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Active & Passive Voice

1. Shut The Door. (ACTIVE)


2. Let The Door Be Shut. (PASSIVE)
3. Bring me a glass of water . (Active)
4. Let a glass of water be brought for me. (Passive)
5. Change the password of your computer today. (Active)
6. Let the password of your computer be changed today. (Passive)

Another example of imperative sentences:-


Active: Do not beat the dog.
Passive: Let the dog not be beaten.
Note that do is not used in the passive form.

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Active & Passive Voice

Note:- We can begin the passive sentence with you if we want to


put emphasis on the person addressed to.

Compare:
Active: Help me.
Passive: Let me be helped.
Passive: You are requested to help me.

Active: Learn the poem.


Passive: Let the poem be learned.
Passive: You are asked to learn the poem.

Active: Don’t touch it.


Passive: Let it not be touched.
Passive: You are warned not to touch it.

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Active & Passive Voice

Note that the passive form has to begin with you when the object of
the active verb is not mentioned.

Active: Work hard.


Here the active verb does not have an object. Therefore the passive
form should begin with you.

Passive: You are advised to work hard.

Active: Get out.


Passive: You are ordered to get out.

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Active & Passive Voice

CHANGES IN PRONOUNS IN PASSIVE SENTENCES

ACTIVE PRONOUN PASSIVE PRONOUN


I Me
We us
You You
He Him
She Her
They Them
it it

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Active & Passive Voice

THE END

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