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1

Image segmentation

◦ ex: edge-based, region-based

Image representation

◦ ex: Chain code , polygonal approximation

signatures, skeletons

Image description

◦ ex: boundary-based, regional-based

Conclusion

2

edge-based: point, line, edge detection

3

There are three basic types of gray-level

discontinuities in a digital image: points, lines, and

edges

The most common way to look for discontinuities

is to run a mask through the image.

We say that a point, line, and edge has been

detected at the location on which the mask is

centered if R T ,where R w1 z1 w2 z2 ...... w9 z9

4

Point detection

Line detection

5

Edge detection:

Gradient operation

f

f fx

Gx

Gy

y

1

f mag (f ) Gx Gy 2 2 2

Gy

( x, y) tan (

1

)

Gx

6

Edge detection:

Laplacian operation

2 f 2 f

f 2 2

2

x y

r2

r 2 2 2 2

h( r )

2

e

4

7

Region-base: SRG, USRG, Fast scanning

8

Region growing: Groups pixels or sub-region

into larger regions.

◦ step1:

Start with a set of “seed” points and from

these grow regions by appending to each

seed those neighboring pixels that have

properties similar to the seed.

◦ step2:

Region splitting and merging

9

Advantage:

◦ With good connectivity

Disadvantage:

◦ Initial seed-points:

different sets of initial seed-point cause different

segmented result

◦ Time-consuming problem

10

Unseeded region growing:

◦ no explicit seed selection is necessary, the

seeds can be generated by the

segmentation procedure automatically.

◦ It is similar to SRG except the choice of seed

point

11

Advantage:

◦ easy to use

◦ can readily incorporate high level knowledge of the

image composition through region threshold

Disadvantage:

◦ slow speed

12

Fast scanning

Algorithm:

◦ The fast scanning

algorithm somewhat

resembles unseeded

region growing

◦ the number of clusters of

both two algorithm would

not be decided before

image passing through

them.

13

14

Last step:

region

15

Advantage:

◦ The speed is very fast

◦ The result of segmentation will be intact with good

connectivity

Disadvantage:

◦ The matching of physical object is not good

It can be improved by morphology and geometric

mathematic

16

dilation erosion

17

dilation erosion

18

opening closing

Erosion=>Dilation Dilation=>Erosion

19

20

21

Muscle Injury Determination How to judge for using

image segmentation?

to segment it.

0.6

The quadratic regression equation

Image of the unhealthy muscle fiber

0.5

Image of the healthy muscle fiber

0.4

0.3

Y

0.2

0.1

-0.1

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

X

22

chain code, polynomial approximation,

signature, skeletons

23

4-direction

8-direction

24

Merging Techniques Splitting Techniques

S1

S2

25

r

θ

A

A

r(θ ) r(θ )

2A

A

θ θ

3 5 3 7 3 5 3 7

2 2

4 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4

circle shapes rectangular shapes

26

Step1:

◦ (a) 2 N ( p1 ) 6

◦ (b) T ( p1 ) 1

◦ (c) p2 p4 p6 0

◦ (d) p4 p6 p8 0

Step2:

◦ (c’) p2 p4 p8 0

◦ (d’) p2 p6 p8 0

27

boundary descriptor: Fourier descriptor,

polynomial approximation

28

Step1: s (k ) x(k ) jy (k )

Step2: (DFT)

1

K 1 j 2 uk / K

a(u ) k 0

s ( k ) e

K

Step3: (reconstruction)

s(k ) u 0 a(u)e j 2 uk / K

P 1

Disadvantage:

◦ Just for closed boundaries

29

What’s the reason that

previous Fourier

descriptors can’t be s1(k)

used for non-closed (xK1, yK1) s2(k)

Step 2

non-closed boundaries?

(a)linear offset

Step 3

(b)odd-symmetric

(c) Odd symmetric extension

extension

30

The proposed method

is used not only for

non-closed boundaries

but also for closed

boundaries.

method to descript

closed boundaries

rather than previous

method?

31

Lagrange Polynomial Cubic Spline Interpolation

n

P( x) f ( x0 ) Ln ,0 ( x) f ( xn ) Ln ,n ( x) f ( xk ) Ln ,k ( x)

k 0

S(x)

( x x0 ) ( x xk 1 )( x xk 1 ) ( x xn ) S4

Ln ,k ( x) S6

( xk x0 ) ( xk xk 1 )( xk xk 1 ) ( xk xn ) S1 S5

S0

S j ( x j 1 ) f ( x j 1 ) S j 1 ( x j 1 )

S 'j ( x j 1 ) S 'j 1 ( x j 1 )

f ( n1) ( ( x)) S "j ( x j 1 ) S "j 1 ( x j 1 )

f ( x) P( x) ( x x0 )( x x1 ) ( x xn )

(n 1)!

x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 xn 7 x

e f ( x) P( x)

32

Proposed method(1) f ( x) f ( x ')

and let two end point locate

at x-axis

x x'

polynomial to approximate

the boundary

f ( x ')

4b a 2

yˆ 2 ( x ' ) b

a

( , b)

2

a 2

ŷ

b

n 1 2

4b a

e y ' yˆ

(a, 0)

y j ' 2 ( x j ' )2 b

2

(0, 0) a

j 0 a 2 x0 ' xn 1 ' x '

33

Proposed method(2)

how can we do?

divide the boundary to

two parts.

ŷ1 ŷ1

y1 '

ŷ2

y2 '

ŷ2

boundary.

34

Regional descriptors: Topological, Texture

35

E=V-Q+F=C–H

◦ E: Euler number

◦ Q: the number of edges

◦ F: the number of faces

◦ C: the number of

connected component

◦ H: the number of holes

36

Statistical approaches nth moment:

un ( z) i 0 ( zi m)n p( zi )

L 1

◦ smooth, coarse, regular

L 1

m i 0

zi p( zi )

◦ 2th moment:

is a measure of gray level

contrast(relative smoothness)

◦ 3th moment:

is a measure of the skewness

of the histogram

◦ 4th moment:

is a measure of its relative

flatness

◦ 5th and higher moments:

are not so easily related to

histogram shape

37

Image segmentation

◦ speed, connectivity, match physical objects or not…

match physical objects:

morphological: how to choose foreground or background?

geometric mathematic: wrong connection

◦ Boundary descriptor:

rotation, translation, degree of match boundary,

closed or non-closed boundary

38

[1] R.C. Gonzalez, R.E. Woods, Digital Image

Processing second edition, Prentice Hall, 2002

[2] J.J. Ding, W.W. Hong, Improvement Techniques

for Fast Segmentation and Compression

[3] J.J. Ding, Y.H. Wang, L.L. Hu, W.L. Chao, Y.W.

Shau, Muscle Injury Determination By Image

Segmentation

[4] J.J. Ding, W.L. Chao, J.D. Huang, C.J. Kuo,

Asymmetric Fourier Descriptor Of Non-Closed

segments

39

Thank you for listening

40

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