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Tropical Biology (Costa Rica)
Biology 320
May 20-31, 2008

Register for Bio 360 and 320 for Spring

$1900 approximate cost


Scholarships Available!

For more information:


Dr. Elliott or Dr. Szczys
G113 or Planetarium EML
ECSU Biology Club
bioclub@easternct.edu
Meetings: Tuesdays, 5 PM, Goddard Lobby

House Party
9 PM November 13
Student Center Theater
Food etc.
Biology:
life study of

What is Life? Properties of Life


Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many
Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation,
digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion,
circulation--processing materials and energy
Growth: cell enlargement, cell number
Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion
Reproduction: avoid extinction at death
Behavior: short term response to stimuli
Evolution: long term adaptation
Organismal Circulation

Unicellular Organisms
Autotrophic Multicellular Organisms
(Heterotrophic Multicellular Organisms)
Cyclosis in Physarum polycephalum, a slime mold
This organism consists of one
very large cytoplasm
(plasmodium) with many nuclei
and food vacuoles in the cytosol
(coenocytic).
Slime molds can weigh up
toward kilogram range and
moves their blob-like mass http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/courses/img/Botany_130
/Movies/Slime_mold.mov
around exclusively by cyclosis.
The correct taxonomic
Here you can see, in a thin affiliation is unclear.
region of cytoplasm, that it moves It has been treated as
along pathways that are river-like Fungus and Protist.
in appearance. Further study is needed
Transport is NOT always to resolve its position.
unidirectional. What is the ATP source?
Cyclosis: cytoplasmic streaming…intracellular circulation
Elodea canadensis
Chloroplasts and ATP and
other organelles Calcium allow
have surface myosin to slide
proteins with QuickTime™ and a along actin
myosin-like Cinepak decompressor
are needed to see this picture. filaments,
activity. resulting in
Microfilaments of circulation of
actin are found organelles within
just under cell the cell.
http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgnov00/cycloa3i.avi

membrane.
What is the source of ATP?
Can you be more specific?
If light intensity were reduced, what would be
the prediction based on your hypothesis?
Monocot circulation: transpiration and translocation

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Monocot stem anatomy

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Monocot stem anatomy

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Monocot stem anatomy: vascular bundle

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot circulation: stem anatomy

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: vascular bundle

phloem fibers

functional phloem

vascular cambium

xylem

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: vascular cambium adds secondary tissues

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: vascular cambium adds secondary tissues

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: four year-old stem (3 annual growth rings)

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: woody stem circulation

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: 2-year old stem showing ray and periderm

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: periderm

dying epidermis
maturing
cork cells
periderm
cork cambium
phelloderm
cortical collenchyma

cortical parenchyma

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: xylem tracheid sequence
Annular Helical Pitted

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: bordered pits as “check-valve” for flow

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: xylem vessel evolution
plesiomorphic apomorphic

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: xylem vessels, tracheids, and parenchyma

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: xylem vessels, tracheids, and parenchyma

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Dicot stem anatomy: pine xylem tracheids with pits, xylem rays

vascular
cambium

tracheids with pits

ray parenchyma

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Secondary xylem: cross sections of various species

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Xylem and Phloem: tissues with many cell types but conduction
function

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Circulation: maximum height of unbroken water column

A tree taller than


10.4 m would need
some adaptations to
avoid “cavitation”
Small diameter of
vessels and
tracheids provides
capillary (“climb”)
Cohesion of water is
caused by hydrogen
bonds
©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company
Transpiration: root pressure (osmotic “push”)

guttation

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Transpiration: evaporation (“pull”)

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Transpiration: 32PO4 (radioactive phosphorus) movement
Grown in 32PO4 1 hour
“Cold” medium 6 hours “Cold” medium 90 hours

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Phosphate is a mobile macroelement
Is this translocation or transpiration?
In xylem or phloem?
Translocation: How solutes move in phloem

plasmodesmata

transport
active

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


Translocation: How solutes move bidirectionally in phloem
Developing
leaves,
apical bud,
flowers
fruits

Leaf sugars
amino acids

Lateral
buds,
stems,
roots, root
tip
Modified from: ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company
Plant circulation: Summary of transpiration and translocation

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


QuickTime™ and a
Animation decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company