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AGGREGATES

Group 1
AGGREGATES
• Aggregates are inert granular materials such as sand, gravel, or
crushed stone.

• Aggregates are an essential ingredient in concrete.

• For a good concrete mix, aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong,


and particles free of absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay and other
fine materials that could cause the deterioration of concrete.
AGGREGATES
AGGREGATES

• Crushed Stone

• Gravel
AGGREGATES

• Sand

• Recycled Concrete
AGGREGATES
• Aggregates, which account for 60 to 75 percent of the total volume
of concrete, are divided into two distinct categories that is the fine
and coarse aggregates.

• Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone


with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve.

• Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0.19 inch. Gravels
constitute the majority of coarse aggregate used in concrete with
crushed stone making up most of the remainder.
AGGREGATES
• Natural gravel and sand are usually dug from a pit, river, lake, or
seabed.

• Crushed aggregate is produced by crushing quarry rock, boulders,


cobbles, or large-size gravel.

• Recycled concrete is a viable source of aggregate and has been


satisfactorily used in granular subbases, soil-cement, and in new
concrete.
AGGREGATES
• After harvesting, aggregate is processed: crushed, screened, and
washed to obtain proper cleanliness and gradation.

• Once processed, the aggregates are handled and stored to minimize


segregation and degradation and prevent contamination.
USES OF AGGREGATES
• Aggregates strongly influence concrete's freshly mixed and hardened
properties, mixture proportions, and economy.

• Aggregates increases the volume of concrete, thus reduces the cost.

• Aggregates influences hardness, abrasion resistance, elastic modulus,


and other properties of concrete to make it more durable, strong and
cheaper.
USES OF AGGREGATES
• Concrete - A combination of coarse and fine aggregate in concrete
mixes helps to avoid higher cement costs and larger void, or hole,
areas. Aggregate provides a rigid structure that also reduces
shrinkage and cracking in the cement.
USES OF AGGREGATES

• Railways - Aggregate functions as railway ballast, meaning the


material helps support the weight of the train while also evenly
distributing and transferring the weight to the ground since a fully
loaded train weighs thousands of tons and all of that weight at high
speeds can easily damage the rails, ground and nearby buildings. The
crushed rock tends to be coarser when used as railway ballast in
order to provide necessary drainage properties.
USES OF AGGREGATES
• Roads and asphalt - Road construction includes airport runways,
playgrounds, pavements, parking lots, and any other kind of road
structure. Each kind of structure receives different variation in the
coarseness of the aggregate material. When it comes to the structure
of road construction, the upper two layers of the road are made of
coarse and fine aggregates mixed with a binder and some filler. This
mixture provides the main load-bearing and even plane for the
surface we drive on every day.
USES OF AGGREGATES
• As a basic raw material aggregates can be put to many uses, although certain
tasks may require a specific type of aggregate.

• The largest proportion of the primary aggregate was used to manufacture


concrete (36%), with a further 10% used to manufacture the cement that is also
used in the concrete.

• Used in roads was the second largest category with 26%, while 20% of aggregates
were used in other construction uses & fills and another 2% were used for railway
ballast.

• However materials that are suitable for use as aggregates can also be used to
manufacture other products thus industrial and other uses amounted to 6% with
the remainder split between the manufacture of mortar (4%), glass (1%) and use
in agriculture (1%).
REFERENCES
• http://www.cement.org/cement-concrete-basics/concrete-
materials/aggregates
• http://www.cement.org/for-concrete-books-learning/concrete-
technology/concrete-design-production/use-of-aggregates-in-
concrete
• http://www.aboutcivil.org/aggregates-types-uses-definition.html
• http://crushboss.com/uses-of-aggregates/
• http://www.cemex.com/ProductsServices/AggregatesTypes.aspx
REFERENCES