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SIXTH EDITION

CHAPTER 2
Personality
dynamics
ORGANISATIONALBEHAVIOUR
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Learning Outcomes

Explain what self-esteem is and how it can be improved


Define self-efficacy and explain its sources
Contrast high and low self-monitoring individuals, and
describe the resulting problems each may have
Explain the difference between an internal and an external
locus of control

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 3


ORGANISATIONALBEHAVIOUR
ORGANISATIONALBEHAVIOUR

Learning Outcomes

Identify and describe the Big Five personality dimensions


Describe Jung’s and Myers and Briggs’ personality typology
Elaborate on cautions and tips concerning (personality)
testing in the workplace
Describe the implications of intelligence and cognitive
abilities

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 4


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Self-concept: the I and me in OB


• Self-concept: a person’s self-perception as a physical, social, and
spiritual or moral being

o Implies the capacity to think

• Cognition: a person’s knowledge, opinions or beliefs

o Cognitions relevent to OB:

Goal Setting
Planning Evaluating
setting Standards

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Self-concept: the I and me in OB

Japanese
vs.
American
self
conceptions

Source: Adapted from D. C. Barnlund, ‘Public and Private Self in Communicating with Japan’, Business Horizons, March–April 1989, pp. 32–40.

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 6


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Self-esteem: a controversial topic


• Self-esteem
o Belief about own self-worth based on overall self-evaluation

High self-esteem Low self-esteem


Worthwhile Negative feelings
Capable Self-doubt
Acceptable Negative image about self

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Evidence about self-esteem

• HSE handle failure better than LSE


• HSE associated with agressive and violent behaviour
• Childhood self-esteem can overwhelm academic disadvantage or
social deprivation in determining future earnings power

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Evidence about self-esteem

• Worldwide survey of 13,118 students from 31 countries


o A moderate positive correlation between self-esteem and life satisfaction
o Correlation was stronger in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic
cultures

• Conclusion
o Individualistic cultures socialise people to focus on themselves, while people
in collectivistic cultures are socialised to fit into the community and to do
their duty.

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 9


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Application: self-esteem enhancement

Table 2.1
Six Pillars
of Self-
Esteem

Source: Excerpted and adapted from N. Branden, Self-


Esteem at Work: How Confident People Make Powerful
Companies (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998), pp.
33–6.

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 10


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Application: self-esteem enhancement


• Organisations can build employee self-esteem:
1. Be supportive by showing concern for personal problems,
interests, status and contributions.
2. Offer work involving variety, autonomy and challenges that suit
the employee’s values, skills and abilities.
3. Strive for supervisor-employee cohesiveness and build trust.
4. Have faith in each employee’s self-management ability.

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 11


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Self-efficacy

• Definition: belief in one’s ability to complete a task successfuly

• The relationship between self-efficacy and performance is cyclical

• Chronically low self-efficacy is associated with a condition called


learned helplessness, which means a severely debilitating lack of
faith in one’s ability to control the situation.

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 12


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

The mechanisms of self-efficacy

Figure 2.1
A Model of How
Self-Efficacy
Beliefs Can Pave
the Way for
Success or Failure

Source: Adapted from discussion in A. Bandura, ‘Regulation of Cognitive


Processes through Perceived Self-Efficacy’, Developmental Psychology,
September 1989, pp. 729–35; and R. Wood and A. Bandura, ‘Social
Cognitive Theory of Organisational Management,’ Academy of
Management Review, July 1989, pp. 361–84.

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 13


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Evidence about self-efficacy

• Significant positive correlation between self-efficacy and job


performance.

• Employees with high self-efficacy are better at taking initiatives

• People with low self-efficacy tend to be less productive

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 14


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Application of self-efficacy

Recruiting/ Interview questions can be designed to probe job applicants’


selection/job general self-efficacy as a basis for determining orientation and
assignments training needs
Job design Complex, challenging and autonomous jobs tend to enhance
perceived self-efficacy.
Training and Self-efficacy expectations for key tasks can be improved through
development guided experiences, mentoring and role modelling.
Self- Systematic self-management training involves enhancement of
management self-efficacy expectations

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Application of self-efficacy

Goal setting Interview questions can be designed to probe job applicants’


and quality general self-efficacy as a basis for determining orientation and
improvement training needs
Coaching Those with low self-efficacy, and employees victimised by learned
helplessness, need lots of constructive pointers and positive
feedback
Leadership The necessary leadership talent surfaces when top management
gives high-self-efficacy professionals a chance to prove themselves
under pressure
Rewards Small successes need to be rewarded as stepping stones to a
© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education
stronger self-image and greater achievements Chapter 2- 16
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Locus of control

• Definition: degree to which a person takes responsibility for


his/her behaviour and its consequences

• Internals: attributes outcomes to one’s own action

• Externals: attributes outcomes to circumstances beyond one’s


control

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Self-monitoring

• High SMs (chameleons)


oThey are highly responsive to social and
interpersonal cues of situationally appropriate performances.

• Low SMs (on their own planet)

• Their expressive behaviours functionally reflect their own


enduring and momentary inner states,
including their attitudes, traits and feelings.

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Evidence and application about self-monitoring

• Positive relationship between high SMs and career success.

• High SMs enjoyed more internal and external promotions than did
their low SM classmates

• Managerial success tied to political savvy

• Self-monitoring is a relevant and useful factor when dealing with job


performance and emerging leaders

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 19


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Locus of control
• Internals: attributes outcomes to one’s own action
o See themselves as active agents.
o Assume that they can control events in their lives by effort and skill
o Tends to blame negative events, such as failing an exam, on personal
shortcomings

• Externals: attributes outcomes to circumstances beyond one’s


control
o See themselves as passive agents
o Things that they want to achieve are subject to uncontrollable forces, such as
luck, chance and a powerful other
© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 20
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Evidence about locus of control

• Internals and externals have different information-processing capabilities and


learning strategies.

• Internals are more inclined to search for relevant information than externals

• Externals accept dependency on a more competent other

• An internal locus of control was positively related to the initiative dimension of


performance

• The high value placed on personal autonomy in Western culture implies that an
internal locus of control is viewed more favourably than an external locus of
control.
© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 21
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Application: the location of control

• Internals have a tendency to believe they control the work environment through
their behaviour, they will attempt to exert control over the work setting.

• Organisations may want to place internals in jobs requiring high initiative and
low compliance.

• Externals might be more amenable to highly structured jobs requiring greater


compliance.

• Routine and clearly structured tasks are found to increase the motivation of
externals, while they decrease motivation among internals.

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Personality

• Stable physical and mental characteristics that give the individual his
or her identity.

• Nature Genetic factors


• Nurture External influences from culture, social class, work
environment, family, peers, and so on

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Personality factor models

Table 2.2

The Big
Five
Personality
Dimensions

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Evidence about personality


• Big Five personality dimensions that correlate positively and strongly with job
performance would be helpful in the selection, training and appraisal of
employees.
• Conscientiousness had the strongest positive correlation with job performance
and training performance.
• People with high emotional stability work better in stressful situations.
• People with high agreeableness, as well as those with high conscientiousness
and emotional stability provide better customer services.

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Personality Types: Carl Jung

• Sensing: preference for perceiving directly through the five senses


• Intuiting: preference for perceiving indirectly through the unconscious
• Thinking: preference for judging based on a logical, objective and
impersonal process
• Feeling: preference for directing perception and judgement outwardly
(extravert vs. Introvert)

SENSING, INTUITING, THINKING AND FEELING = FUNCTIONAL TYPES


EXTRAVERSION AND INTROVERSION = ATTITUDINAL ORIENTATIONS

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Personality types: Briggs and Myers


Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
• A self-evaluation questionnaire.
• Developed to measure the dimensions identified in Jung’s type theory.
• Widely used (and abused) personal growth and development tool in further education and
business.

The MBTI classifies people along four dimensions:


• Extroversion–introversion Sensing–intuiting
• Thinking–feeling Judging–perceiving

Each of the four dimensions is independent of the other three, which leads to 16
personality types.

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 27


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Evidence about personality types

• Individuals who make judgements based on ‘thinking’ have higher


work motivation and quality of work than ‘feeling’ types

• Sensing individuals have higher job satisfaction than intuiting


people

• A ‘thinking’ type made more money than their ‘feeling’ counterparts

• No correlation was found between the four personality types and


small business owner/manager success

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Application: hiring the right people

• Organisations can also use these types to stimulate co-operation


between people. Opposite types can complement one another

• The problem with personality types is that the types are rigid

• HR departments may object to testing

• Personality testing is in fact widely used by companies for selecting


and promoting employees

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 29


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Intelligence and cognitive abilities

• Ability: stable characteristic responsible for a person’s maximum


physical or mental performance

• Style: a preferred way or habitual pattern of doing

• Skill: Specific capacity to manipulate objects

• Competence: any individual characteristic that is related to effective


and superior performance

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Intelligence

Table 2.3 Source: Adapted from M.


D. Dunnette, ‘Aptitudes,
Mental Abilities, and Skills’, in
Abilities Handbook of Industrial
and Organisational
Underlying Psychology, ed. M. D.
Performance Dunnette (Skokie, IL: Rand
McNally, 1976), pp. 478–
83.

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 31


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Intelligence
• The evidence is strong that cognitive ability is the best predictor of
performance, regardless of what the job is.

• Cognitive ability is more than twice as good a predictor as the best


personality factor (conscientiousness), and even better for jobs that
require the ability to evaluate information and make judgements.

• Difference types of intelligence:

PRACTICAL COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CULTURAL

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 32


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Psychological tests in the workplace

• Psychometrics

• Test measuring typical performance (personality tests)


o Tries to identify people’s preferences in certain situations

• Tests measuring maximum performance (intelligence test)


o Assess people’s abilities under standard conditions and performance

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 33


ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Evidence about personality testing in the workplace

Personality testing as a tool


for hiring applicants ? DIFFERENTIAL
VALIDITY

PREDICTIVE
VALIDITY

FAKING

© 2018 McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 2- 34