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Basic First Aid

At Work!
It is more than a kit and few form

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Securing the scene
Before performing any First Aid,
Check for:

• 1. Electrical hazards
• 2. Chemical hazards
• 3. Noxious & Toxic gases
• 4. Ground hazards
• 5. Fire
• 6. Unstable equipment

2
Chain of Survival
In order for a person to survive:

Early Early CPR Early Early


Access”911” or First Aid Defibrillation Advanced
You Care
EMS on
Pay attention to: scene Hospital
HISTORY; what happened; from the casualty or bystanders
SYMPTOMS; what only the casualty can tell you
SIGNS; what you can see for yourself
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Universal Precautions for Airborne
& Bloodborn Pathogens

HIV & Hepatitis

Gloves & Respiratory


Barrier devise are a must to
prevent transmission of
diseases
Tuberculosis
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DURING TREATMENT
avoid coughing, breathing, or speaking over the
wound
avoid contact with body fluids
use a face shield or mask with one-way-valve
when doing active resuscitation
use only clean bandages and dressings
avoid treating more than one casualty without
washing hands and changing gloves
AFTER TREATMENT
clean up both casualty and yourself
clean up the immediate vicinity
dispose of dressings, bandages, gloves and
soiled clothing correctly
wash hands with soap and water
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Fundamentals of First Aid

Activate EMS System


“911”
• 1. ABC (airway-breathing-circulation)
• 2. Control bleeding
• 3. Treat for Shock(medical emergencies)
• 4. Open wounds & Burns
• 5. Fractures & Dislocations
• 6. Transportation

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STARS

• #4567 on your cell phone

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ABC’s
• Causes of Respiratory/Cardiac Arrest

Electrical
Toxic -
Noxious
gases

Drowning Suffocation

Heart Attack Trauma

Drugs Allergic reactions

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Reaction Time
• If CPR/Artificial respiration is administered
• Chance of brain damage Oxygenated
0 to 4 minutes - blood flow
must get to
4 to 6 minutes - brain

6 to 10 minutes-
10 minutes + -

Recovery rate of
victim if has
artificial
respiration done
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immediately
• Establish responsiveness
A-B-C’s
• Use chin lift/head tilt

Look.-listen-feel for breathing

Attempt to Ventilate
Ventilate Every 5 seconds

Check pulse Recovery position

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Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
• Should be trained to perform this procedure

• If done improperly, could harm victim

• Courses available everywhere

• New in Late 2006


– 30 Compressions to 2 Breaths
– For Everyone!

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Airway Obstructions
open

Tongue closed

obstructed

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Treating: The Recovery Position

For the unconscious casualty who is breathing and is reactive.


Prevents obstruction of the airway by saliva or the tongue.

1 2 3

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Treating: The Recovery Position
The flexed leg is used as a control lever to facilitate body rotation.

4 5 6

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Treating: Keep under observation
Check breathing, consciousness and reactivity every few minutes

Cover the victim with a blanket to keep him warm and avoid shock

Stay with the victim until emergency services arrive

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Heimlich Maneuver
for
Conscious Airway Obstruction

16
Types of Bleeding
Artery

Spurting
Steady flow

•Veins

•Capillary Oozing

Internal Injuries
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Types of Wounds

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Control of Bleeding
Elevation
Direct Pressure

Pressure bandage
Cold Applications

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Pressure Points
Temporal
Where the artery
passes over a bone Facial
close to the skin Carotid

Sub-clavian
Brachial
Radial
Ulnar

Femoral
Popliteal
Pedal

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Tourniquet
Absolute last resort in
controlling bleeding
Remember - Life or limb

Once a tourniquet is
applied, it is not to be
removed , only by a
doctor

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Shock
Shock affects all major
functions of the body
loss of blood flow to the
tissues and organs

Shock must be treated in


all accident cases

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Treatment for Shock
•Lie victim down if possible
•Face is pale-raise the tail
•Face is red-raise the head
•Loosen tight clothing
•Keep victim warm and dry
•Do not give anything by mouth
•No stimulants
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There are three types of heat
emergencies you may be
required to treat.
1.Heat Exhaustion
2.Heat Stroke
3.Heat Cramps
Heat exhaustion is less
dangerous than heat stroke.
It is caused by fluid loss which
in turn causes blood flow to
decrease in vital organs,
resulting in a form of shock.
Signs and Symptoms
Cool, Pale, and Moist Skin

Headache Dilated Pupils

Heavy Sweating
Vomiting Nausea
Body temperature will be near normal.
Get the victim out of the heat and into a
cool place.
Place in the shock position, lying on the
back with feet raised.
Remove or loosen clothing.
Cool by fanning or applying cold packs or
wet towels or sheets. If conscious, give
water to drink every 15 minutes.
WHILE HEAT EXHAUSTION IS
NOT A LIFE- THREATENING
EMERGENCY LIKE HEAT
STROKE, IT CAN PROGRESS
TO HEAT STROKE IF LEFT
UNTREATED!
Heat cramps are muscular pain and
spasms due to heavy exertion. They
usually involve the abdominal
muscles or legs. It is generally
thought this condition is caused by
loss of water and salt through
sweating.
Get victim to a cool place.
If they can tolerate it, give one-half
glass of water every 15 minutes.
Heat cramps can usually be avoided
by increasing fluid intake when active
in hot weather.
Heat Stroke is the most serious type
of heat emergency.
It is LIFE-THREATENING and
requires
IMMEDIATE and
AGGRESSIVE treatment!

Heat stroke occurs when the body's heat


regulating mechanism fails. The body
temperature rises so high that brain damage --
and death-- may result unless the body is
cooled quickly.
Signs and Symptoms
The victim's skin is HOT, RED
and usually DRY.
Pupils are very small.
The body temperature is VERY
HIGH,
sometimes as high as 105
degrees.
Remember, Heat Stroke is a life-
threatening emergency and
requires prompt action!

Summon professional help.

Get the victim into a cool place.


Do not give victim anything by mouth. Treat for
shock.
Diabetic emergencies
Find out if victim has past diabetic history
Insulin Shock (Hypoglycemia)
Result of insufficient sugar- Fast onset
•Cold clammy skin, pale, rapid respiration's and pulse,
incoherent

•Treat by giving sugar bases products


Diabetic coma (Ketoacidosis)
Too much sugar or insufficient insulin- Slow onset
•Warm, dry skin, slow respirations, smell of rotten
fruit on breath
•True medical emergency, activate EMS system
immediately
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Snake & Spider bites
Rattlesnake Copperhead Black Widow Brown Recluse

Limit activity
Constricting bandage above
Cold application
Advanced medical attention

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Burns
Cool application Don’t break Dry sterile dressing, treat for
blisters shock
RAPID TRANSPORT!!!

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Severe Burns and Scalds
Treatment:
Cool the burn area with water for 10 to 20 minutes.
Lay the casualty down and make him as comfortable as possible,
protecting burn area from ground contact.
Gently remove any rings, watches, belts or constricting clothing
from the injured area before it begins to swell.
Cover the injured area loosely with sterile unmedicated dressing or
similar non fluffy material and bandage.
Don't remove anything that is sticking to the burn.
Don't apply lotions, ointments, butter or fat to the injury.
Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere with the injured area.
Don't over-cool the patient and cause shivering.
If breathing and heartbeat stop, begin resuscitation immediately,
If casualty is unconscious but breathing normally, place in the
recovery position.
Treat for shock.
Send for medical attention and prep for transport.
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Minor Burns and Scalds
Treatment:
Place the injured part under slowly running water,
or soak in cold water for 10 minutes or as long as
pain persists.
Gently remove any rings, watches, belts, and
shoes from the injured area before it starts to
swell.
Dress with clean, sterile, non fluffy material.
Don't use adhesive dressings.
Don't apply lotions, ointments or fat to burn/
scald.
Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere.
If in doubt, seek medical aid.

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Chemical Burns

Treatment:
Flood the area with slowly running water for
at least ten minutes. (or proper neutralizing
agent)
Gently remove contaminated clothing while
flooding injured area, taking care not to
contaminate yourself.
Continue treatment for SEVERE BURNS
Remove to hospital.

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Fractures & Dislocations
Must treat for bleeding first
Don’t straighten break
Treat the way you found it

Do not push
bones back
into place

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Dislocations
The most common dislocations occur in the shoulder, elbow,
finger, or thumb.

LOOK FOR THESE SIGNS:


1. swelling
2. deformed look
3. pain and tenderness
4. possible discoloration of the affected area

IF A DISLOCATION IS SUSPECTED...
1. Apply a splint to the joint to keep it from moving.
2. Try to keep joint elevated to slow bloodflow to the area
3. A doctor should be contacted to have the bone set back
into its socket.

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Splints
Must be a straight line break Can be formed to shape of
deformity

43 Be careful of temperature
change
Head Injuries
A sharp blow to the head could result in a concussion, a jostling of the
brain inside its protective, bony covering. A more serious head injury
may result in contusions, or bruises to the brain.

OTHER SYMPTOMS TO LOOK FOR IF YOU SUSPECT A VICTIM MAY HAVE


A BRAIN INJURY:
1. clear or reddish fluid draining from the ears, nose, or mouth
2. difficulty in speaking
3. headache
4. unequal size of pupils
5. pale skin
6. paralysis of an arm or leg (opposite side of the injury) or face (same
side of the injury)

PROPER CARE:
1. While waiting on help to arrive, keep the victim lying down in the
recovery position
2. Control any bleeding, and be sure that he is breathing properly.
3. Do not give the victim any liquids to drink.
4. If the victim becomes unconscious for any amount of time, keep track of
this information so that you can report it when medical help arrives.

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Neck & Spinal Injuries
CARE AND TREATMENT
ABC
extreme care in initial
examination — minimal
movement
urgent ambulance transport
apply cervical collar
treat for shock
treat any other injuries
maintain body heat
if movement required, 'log roll'
and use assistants
always maintain casualty's head
in line with the shoulders
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These are symptoms of what?

• Uncomfortable pressure ,
squeezing, fullness or dull pain in
the chest or upper abdomen
• Shortness of breath
• Pain in shoulders, arms, neck or
jaws
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These are possible symptoms of what?

• Pain
• Swelling
• Bruising
• Distortion of limb

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What type of burn is this?
1st Degree

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What should you never do for a
any degree burn?
Gunk it up.

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The first way to control bleeding
is:
Direct pressure.

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If you find an unconscious victim, you
should first:

• A. Try 2 rescue breaths


• B. Open the airway
• C. Call 911
• D. Treat major bleeding

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If a choking victim becomes
unconscious, you should:

• A. Beat them on the back


• B. Check the mouth for
obstructions
• C. Try 2 rescue breaths
• D. Use abdominal thrusts

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If you get something stuck in your eye,
you should:

• A. Use a tissue or gauze to pull it


out.
• B. Flush it with water
• C. Cover the eyes and get to a
doctor
• D. Rub it, and blink repeatedly
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Rescue breathing should not be done:

• A. On supervisors
• B. If the person has a pulse
• C. On drowning victims
• D. If the person is breathing

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Fall victims should be treated:

• A. The same as burn victims


• B. The same as choking victims
• C. As if they had a broken neck or
spine
• D. As soon as they wake up

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What type of burn is this?

2nd Degree

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Victims of electrical shock can:
• A. Have serious burns
• B. Be disoriented
• C. Have no pulse
• D. All of the above

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The best place to check for a pulse is:

• A. The back
• B. The neck
• C. The foot
• D. Inside the left armpit

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The biggest killer of burn victims is:
• A. Shock
• B. Infection
• C. Contamination of blood
• D. First aiders

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When calling 911, you should tell them:
• A. Your location
• B. The number of victims
• C. The type of injury, if known
• D. All of the above

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Heart attack victims usually:
• A. Refuse to believe they are having
one
• B. Like to jog a bit
• C. Have back pain
• D. Show all the symptoms

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For second degree burns you should:

• A. Make sure you pop all blisters as they


appear
• B. Wrap in dry, sterile dressing
• C. Coat with burn cream
• D. None of the above

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For sprains, you should:

• A. Apply pressure bandages


• B. Soak in hot water
• C. Apply cold packs
• D. Give two rescue breaths

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What kind of burns are these?

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If bitten by a snake, you should:

• A. Use a snakebite kit to open the


wound
• B. Use a tourniquet
• C. Apply cold packs and call 911
• D. Drink plenty of alcohol

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Moving a victim with broken bones can
result in:

• A. Damage to internal tissues and organs


• B. Paralysis
• C. Death
• D. All of the above

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You are most likely to perform first aid
at:
• A. Home
• B. Work
• C. Sporting events
• D. On the highway

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You cannot be successfully sued as a
first aider because of:
• A. Lawyers aren’t like that
• B. People don’t sue those
who try to help them
• C. The Good Samaritan Law
• D. The Bill of Rights

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Moving a casualty - How ?

1- If you are alone and there is a flat


surface =
The foot drag

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Moving a casualty - How ?
2- If you are
alone and there
are obstacles
on the ground
=
The wrist drag

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Moving a casualty - How ?
3- If you are alone and need to
get the victim out of a vehicle.

Switch off ignition.


Look at the car damage. It will indicate how severely the person is injured.

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Moving a casualty - How ?
4- If more than one first aider = Move as a
block

Always ask yourself if it is really necessary to move the injured person ?

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Lifting
Techniques
Two person carry

Lift & roll or log roll

4 person straddle
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Don't forget the Paper Work

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How did your Company Emergency
Response Plan Hold Out

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