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Class 11

1

• Axial Flow Compressors:

• Efficiency Loss: 1.4

h

• Centrifugal Compressors

• Efficiency Loss:

4b

• Axial Flow turbines:

• Efficiency Loss: 1.75

h

Baskharone

rT

Turbine[ p.294] K K 1 0.586Z w3.63

tip

h rm

E

Compressor[ p.360] 1 10 ...

h cos tip Eh 2

Configuration Selection &

Multidisciplinary Decisions

Performance

Weight

Cost

3

Optimization Approach

• A Strategy:

– Find feasible solution(s) within each discipline

– Use each as starting points for multi-disciplined optimization

• Single vs. Multi-Disciplinary Optimization

– A discipline’s potential vs. a balanced design

– Trading away potential in one discipline to improve another (often

to find feasible design space)

• Pointers

– Design variable count: less is more

– Initially utilize large scale perturbations to identify gradients

– Variable side constraints: consult with other disciplines for input

Turbomachinery Design

• Consider Turbine Efficiency & Stress

– "A Simple Correlation of Turbine Efficiency" S. F. Smith,

Journal of Royal Aeronautical Society, Vol 69, July 1965

– Correlation of Rolls Royce data for 70 Turbines

– Shows shape of velocity diagram is important for turbine

efficiency

– Correlation conditions

- Cx approximately constant

- Mach number - low enough

- Reaction - high enough

- Zero swirl at nozzle inlet

- "Good" airfoil shapes

- Corrected to zero clearance 5

6

Smith Turbine Efficiency Correlation

2.8

2.4

Increasing

2.0

1.6

1.2

94% 92% 90% 88%

0.8

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

Cx/u

Turbomachinery Design

• Efficiency Variation on Smith Curve

Cx/U=0.6):

• Higher turning increasing profile loss faster than

work.

• Higher velocity causes higher profile loss with no

additional work

8

Smith Turbine Efficiency Correlation

2.8

2.4

Increasing

2.0

1.6

1.2

94% 92% 90% 88%

0.8

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

Cx/u

Typical Optimization Formulations

Aero Structures

Chord distribution

CG offsets (stacking)

Design Constraints Design point flow & pressure profile Material properties

Off-design lapse Stress

Stability Tuning

Casing clearance Flutter

Airfoil Structural Overview

• Tools

• Hand calculations, finite element analysis

shapes

• Design constraints

• Strength, life

• Tuning

• Aero-elastic stability (flutter)

• HCF [High Cycle Fatigue] margin

Low Cycle Fatigue [LCF] Considerations

– Disks & high pressure cases – removed at end of certified life

– Blades – removed for cause / wear out modes, such as airfoil

erosion

• Assessment

– Attachment fillet Kt’s available via Peterson’s or FEA

– Nominal stress

– S-N curve

Blade Vibration

• Cantilevered structures attain various modes: bending, torsion,

coupled bending / torsion

• Each mode has its own natural frequency

• Effect of rotation [shaft] is to stiffen structure and raise natural

frequency

• Structural design should be resonance free operating condition

at: design speed, idle speed and other key operating points

• Campbell diagram shows possible matches [Excitation] between

vibrational mode frequencies and multiples of shaft rotation [N]

• Multiples of N caused by stators, blades, struts in neighboring

rows

• Examples:

– Forced spring – mass damping

– Chinook helicopter

13

Motion of a damped spring-mass system

k

my / / cy / ky 0 where 0 natural frequency of system

m

2

c

Cases : 1 0 0 signal decays overdamped

2

2m

2

c

2 2

0 0 critically damped

2m

2

c

3 0 0 underdamped

2

2m

14

Forced motion: Damped spring-mass system

my cy ky A cos[t ]

// /

15

CHINOOK HELICOPTER

16

Airfoil Tuning Represented on Campbell

Diagram

• Excitation orders

– Static flow disturbance

relative to the rotating frame

– Source = inlet distortions

– Freq = EO*RPM/60

• Project Requirements

– 1st bending @ RL > 20%

– 2nd & 3rd modes @ RL > 5%

18

19

HCF Strength Assessed with Goodman Diagram

Smooth, Minimum Properties

Alternating

Vibratory Stress (ksi, 0-peak)

Strength

Vibratory Limit

Ultimate

Strength

Steady Limit

Stresses

21

Secondary Air Systems

22

S R S R

23

Turbomachinery Design

Structural Considerations

• Rotor airfoil stresses

– Centrifugal due to blade rotation [cent]

• Rim web thickness

– Rotating airfoil inserted into solid annulus (disk rim).

– Airfoil hub tensile stress smeared out over rim

• Disk stress [disk]

– Torsional: Tangential disk stress required to transfer

shaft horsepower to the airfoils

– Thermal: Stresses arising from radial thermal

gradients

• Cyclic effect called low-cycle fatigue (LCF)

24

Turbomachinery Design

Structural Considerations

• Blade pitch [s] at Rmean chosen for performance s/b, h/b values

• Need to check if [s] too small for disc rim attachment

• number of blades have an upper limit

• Fir tree holds blade from radial movement, cover plates for axial

• slight movement allowed to damp unwanted vibrations

• manufacturing tolerances critical in fir tree region 25

Structural Design Considerations

• Airfoil Centrifugal Stress

Blade of constant cross section has mass:

dFcentrifugal 2 Rdm 2 R[ m AdR ]

d cent . dFcentrifugal

2 RdR

m m A

for constant blade cross sec tional area

cent .

RT

U 2

RH

2

RdR

2

1

T

m 2 RT

RH

cent . 0.5 m 2 N 2 2 rT2 rH2

An

M D DR DT DR

Pull B r 2 h T rm 26

g 2 4

Turbomachinery Design

Structural Considerations

Centrifugal stress is limited by blade material properties

c Stress 2 [ psi ]

Blade cross section area Acs [in ]

MB

Pull r 2

g

DT DH DT DH 2 N N

Rmean [rad / s ]

2 2 12 2 2 12 60 30

M mass metal Lmetal Acs 0.28 lbm / in3 [ for steel ]

DT DH

Lblade [in]

2

P DT DH DT DH 2 metal Aan N 2

c Stress N

Acs 2 2 g 12 900 2 790, 000

27

Aan

28

Turbomachinery Design

Structural Considerations

Centrifugal stress is limited by blade material properties

L

Cent. bending

Gas bending

From Rear

29

Mechanical Design – Minimizing Root Moments

Pull

CG

Air pressure

CG Offset

Bearing stress maldistribution

Turbomachinery Design

Structural Considerations

loading [Kerrebrock]

2

Cx s rT

bending p s 1

U T 2c tmax

c/s=

• Centrifugal stress is typically larger than bending stress

31

Typical Centrifugal Stress Values

Compressor Turbine

3

Slugs/ft 9.0 15.0

N RPM 10,000 10,000

A ft2 2.0 1.0

AN2 in2-RPM2 2.88 x 1010 1.44 x 1010

rT/rH 0.8 8.8

c psi 19,630 16,360

32

Typical Centrifugal Stress Values

First stage turbine : T0 1200 K p0 4.0 bar

rT 0.75 m rH 0.51 m N 10,500 rev / min

Rmean 50% 0.7 E 2.5 []

E h0 / U 2 C3u C2u / U C3u W3u U C2u W2u U

E W3u W2u / U tan 3 tan 2

R tan 3 tan 2 / 2 3 68.2 2 46.98

For R 50% 2 3 2 2

at rm rT rH / 2 0.315 U m 2 Nrm 346.4 mps

C x U m 242.45 mps C2 C x / cos 2 652.86 mps 33

Typical Centrifugal Stress Values

Given stator 96%

T2 T02 C22 / 2c p 1016.3 K

/ 1

p2 1 T2

1 p2 1.986 bar

p01 T01

m 2 A2C x 2 39.1 kg / s

2 412.3 0.51 2

2

3 2 0.75

Need to determine if blade with this stress level will last 1000hr to rupture

34

Turbo Design - Structural Considerations

annulus [rim]

• Airfoil tensile stress is treated as ‘smeared

out’ over rim

c nblades Ahub

disk blades

2 r[x]rim

• Disk supports rim and connects to shaft

35

Turbomachinery Design

Structural Considerations

• The average tangential stress due to inertia then is:

FV 2 I

t

2A A

• The contribution of the external force to the average

tangential stress is

Frim

2A

• so that the total average tangential stress becomes:

I Frim

t

2

A 2A 36

Turbomachinery Design

Structural Considerations

stress can be reduced by:

I Frim

t

2

A 2A

mass to ID of disk

37

Turbomachinery Design

Structural Considerations

• Stress and major flow design parameters (, E) relate directly to

achievable

• Recalling from Dimensional Analysis:

Cx m m 1 N

U AU AN 2 D

C m1 N

x

U D

m N

D

blades and lower flow coefficient () 38

Turbomachinery Design

Structural Considerations

• Also :

h0 Cx m 1 N

E 2 2

N D U D

• Flow, Density & Work are set by cycle requirements

& blade configuration

• Parametric effects

– increased N increased (to first order), decreased E (to 2nd

order)

– increased D decreased (to first order), decreased E (to

2nd order)

39

Smith Turbine Efficiency Correlation

2.8

2.4

+20% Stress

2.0

E

1.6

+20% D +20% N

1.2

94% 92% 90% 88%

0.8

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

Cx/u

Plot shows effect of +20% change in N, D & stress on Cx/U, E, and Efficiency.

40

Stress changes allowable blade height or annulus area.

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Objective: to illustrate interaction of several design parameters

– , stress level (cent), x, cost, weight flowpath dimensions

• Design a baseline turbine and 3 alternative configurations

– Dmean or weight and cost on

– Aan or Cx or weight on

– Stress level on

• All turbine designs have the following conditions

m 50 lbm / s Cx1 Cx 2

p01 200 psia 28,800 psf T01 2200 R

Dmean1 Dmean 2 R 50%

span L

AR 1.0 h0 same

bx bx

2 cos 2 bx bx nb

Zw sin 1.0 where x b x

x cos 1 s Dmean1 / nb D41mean1

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Design: fill in the missing blanks in the table below

E -2.0

0.9

N [rpm] 15,000 Base

Aan [in2] +15% Base

AanN2 [in2/min2] Base Base +21%

Dmean [in] +15% Base Base

nb

x

[%]

• Remember cent AanN2 and cost blade count (nb)

42

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Base Case: Assume only for this case M1=0.8 is given.

C 1 2

1/ 2

C C a C T C

M 1 0.8 1 1 0 1 0 1 f ( M 1 ) 1 1 M1

a1 a0 a1 a0 T1 a0 a0 2

C1

0.7532 C1 1731.9 fps

a0

2 E 2 R 2 (2) 2 0.5

tan 1 1.666 1 590 2

2 2 0.9

43

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Base Case: Assume only for this case M1=0.8 is given.

U 120U

Dmean 2 Rmean 2 1.2605 ft 15.126 in

2 N / 60 2 15, 000

m T01

Aan1 0.3087 ft 2 44.45 in 2

p01 cos 1MFP( M 1 )

bx L / AR L 0.93 in

44

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Base Case:

2R E 2 0.5 2

tan 1 0.5555 1 29.00 [ by convention]

2 2 0.9

29 (59) 88

2 cos 59

x sin 88 1.177

Z w cos 29

x Dmean

nb 60.14 Number of airfoils 60

bx

45

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Base Case:

Find h0

EU 2

h0 78.28 Btu / lbm

gJ

E 2.0, 0.9 90.7 2.0 (tip clearance) 88.7

46

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Baseline Design:

Parameter Base

E -2.0

0.9

N [rpm] 15,000

Aan [in2] 44.45 • Account for tip clearance losses

AanN2 [in2/min2] 1x!010 as a 2% debit in efficiency

Dmean [in] 15.126

nb 60

x 1.177 • Remember cent AanN2 and

[%] 88.7 cost blade count (nb)

1 [degrees] 59

M1 0.80 Aan N 2

c Stress [ psi]

[turning, degs.] 88.00 790,000

47

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Alternate Design 1: Given N, Aan1N2, Dmean1

Dmean increased by 15% Dmean 1.15Dbase 15.126 1.15 17.39 in

Aan N 2 constant, therefore compute new span L

1x1010

L Aan N /( Dmean N )

2 2

0.813 in

17.39 15, 000 2

bx L / AR 0.813 in

h0 78.28 32.174 778

E 2

2

1.511

U /( gJ ) 1139

2 E 2 R 2 (1.511) 2(0.5) 1.255

tan 1

2 2

48

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Alternate Design 1:

Guess 1

1.0883m T01 1.0883 50 2200 0.2873

FP0 Get M 1

p01 Aan1 cos 1 200 17.14 0.825cos 1 cos 1

1/ 2

C1 1 2

f ( M 1 ) M 1 1 M1 Get C1

a0 2

Cx C1 RT01 C 49.02 2200 C

cos 1 1 cos 1 2.018 1 cos 1 Get

U a0 U a0 1139.0 a0

1 tan 1 (1.255 / )

C1

Unknowns : M 1 , 1 , , with 4 equations set up iteration

a0

Solution : 1 58.80 2 Cx / U 0.7527

49

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Alternate Design 1:

1 58.80 2 Cx / U 0.7527

E 2R 1.511 2 0.5

tan 1 1 18.75

2 2 0.7527

18.75 (58.8) 77.550

Determine solidity from Z w

2 cos(58.8)

x sin(77.55) 1.068

Z w cos(18.75)

Determine the number of airfoils

D 1.068 17.39

nb x mean 71.76 nb 72

bx 0.8

Determine turbine efficiency

[ from Smith chart ] 93.3% 2%[tip clarance] 91.3%

50

Turbomachinery Gaspath Design Problem

• Summary

E -2.0 -1.511

0.9 07527

N [rpm] 15,000 15,000

Aan [in2] 44.45 44.45 +15% Base

AanN2 [in2/min2] 1x!010 1x!010 Base +21%

Dmean [in] 15.126 17.39 Base Base

nb 60 72

x 1.177 1.068

[%] 88.7 91.3

1 [degrees] 59 58.6

M1 0.80 0.76

[turning, degs.] 88.00 77.55

51

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