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# CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND

DISCUSSION
Data Analysis, Presentation and
Discussion
-Mean, Standard Deviation, ANOVA
and Correlation
Quantitative Data Analysis
Purposes
• To describe and summarize the collected data
• To identify relationships between variables
• To compare variables
• To identify differences between variables
• To forecast outcomes
Steps in Quantitative Data Analysis
1. Coding System
2. Data Tabulation
3. Analysis of Data using Statistical Tools
(frequency count and percentage, mean,
standard deviation, ANOVA, Correlation, t-
test)
4. Interpretation of the information
Writing the Results and Discussion
Points to Ponder
• How did your actual results compared
with what you expected?
• How did your results compare with the
results of other researchers?
• How might you explain any unexpected
results?
• How might you test to those
potential explanations?
• Based on your results, what
question/s would you logically
How to Organize the results and discussion
part?
1. Review the main results-connect your hypothesis
2. Explain the processes behind the results such as
unexpected results, possible explanations, compare
with other research, and discuss the limitations of
3. Conclusion
-bring everything together
-mention possible applications or extensions for
further research.
Step 3 & 4: Data Analysis and Interpretation
using Statistical Tools
1. Frequency Count and Percentage
Example:
Question 1: What is the profile of the respondents?
Profile Freq. %
20 – 25 18 60.00
AGE 26 – 30 12 40.00
Total 30 100.00
Male 10 33.33
Gender Female 20 66.67
Total 30 100.00
Sample Interpretation
This section presents the results of the analysis
to answer the following research question.
What is the profile of the respondents in
terms of age and gender. Table 1 shows the
summary of the results.
The data revealed that most of the respondents
are female (66.7 %). It can be deduced that ….
This result is in accordance to Smith (2007)
study which states that …
continued
• In terms of the age of the respondents,
majority of them are in the ages of 20-22
years old (60 %). This data shows … (This
means…).
It agrees to the findings of Keller (2009) that …
Mean and Standard Deviation