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There is more to TDG than Chemicals and Loud

Booms
10-22-09

Acetylene bottle
stored in plumbers
van

Gas ignited by
1. Legislation
2. Safety Advisers
3. Duties of participants
4. Driver training
5. Documentation
6. Packaging
7. Vehicle equipment and marking
8. Quantity exemptions and Limited Quantity
9. Examples – how much can I carry with exemptions?
10. General exemptions and questions
Who wants to take the next load of TDG without
Training
 Transportation of Dangerous Goods
(TDG)
 Overview of TDG Regulations
 Classification of Dangerous Goods
 Safety Marks & Placards
 Empty Containers & Vehicles
 Emergency Response
 Documentation
 Definition Under the Law
 “Dangerous goods” means any product,
substance, or organism included by its nature
or by the regulations in any of the classes
listed in the schedule.”
 “The Schedule” referred to above is Schedule
II of the Transportation of Dangerous Goods
Regulations.
 Objectives
 To promote public safety during handling and
transport
 Different from WHMIS which focuses on
employee health & safety
 Prohibits anyone from transporting dangerous
goods unless it is with the requirements of the
Act and TDG Regulations.
 TDG Regulations, Section 9.7
 No person shall handle, offer for transport,
or transport dangerous goods unless they
are:
 Trained in aspects of the TDG Regulations, and
issued a Certificate of Training, or
 Under the direct supervision of a trained person.
 Training Certificate is valid for 3 years.
Handling
means loading, packing or placing, unloading, unpacking or
removing, or reloading, repackaging or replacing dangerous
goods in or from any container, packaging, or means of
transport or at any facility for the purposes of, in the course of
or following transportation and includes storing dangerous
goods in the course of transportation of dangerous goods.
Safety Mark
includes any design, symbol, device, sign, label, placard,
letter, word, number, abbreviation or any combination thereof
that is to be displayed on dangerous goods or containers,
packaging, means of transport or facilities used in the
handling, offering for transport or transporting of dangerous
goods.

Continued ...
Shipping Document
means any document that accompanies dangerous goods
being handling, offered for transport or transported and that
describes or contains information relating to the goods, and
in particular, but without restricting the generality of the
foregoing, includes a bill of lading, cargo manifest, shipping
order, way-bill, and switching order.
Packing Group
indicates the degree of danger within a given classification
of dangerous goods. Group I, great danger; Group II
moderate danger; Group III, minor danger.
Nine Classes Based on Hazard Type
 Class 1: Explosives
 Class 2: Gases
 Class 3: Flammable Liquids
 Class 4: Flammable Solids
 Class 5: Oxidizers
 Class 6: Poisons
 Class 7: Radioactive Materials
 Class 8: Corrosives
 Class 9: Miscellaneous
 Step 1: Determine if material is exempt
 Refer to Part II (Section 2.3) of TDG
Regulations to determine if exempt. If so,
classification is not required.
 Step 2: Determine Classification
 Refer to Schedule II of TDG Regulations.
 List I consists of explosive materials.
 List II consists of more than 3000 dangerous
goods, other than explosives.
 Gasoline & Diesel Fuel
 TDGR Section 2.31 makes partial
exemptions for transportation by road if:
 Containers are transported in open vehicle so
label or placard is visible from outside the
vehicle;
 Each container is secured to the vehicle
during transport; and
 Total capacity of containers in/on vehicle is
not more than 2,000 liters.

Continued ...
 Propane
 TDGR Section 2.31makes partial exemptions
for transportation by road if:
 Containers are transported in open vehicle so
label or placard is visible from outside the
vehicle;
 Each cylinder is secured to the vehicle during
transport; and
 Total quantity being transported is not greater
than 500 kg.
 Herbicides & Pesticides
 TDGR Section 2.31makes partial exemptions
for transportation by road if:
 The product or solution is transported in a tank
having a volume of 5000 L or less.;
 Tank is being used for mixing or holding of
product prior to or during application
procedures;
 Tank is properly placarded
 Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, & Propane
 Exempt from:
 Using TDG shipping document
 Using placards on vehicles (except
herbicides/pesticides)
 Training, registration, reporting
 Not exempt from:
 Immediately notifying authorities if
dangerous goods are lost or released.
 Filing written report for spills/releases.
 Labeling containers.
 Herbicides & Pesticides
 Exempt from:
 Using TDG shipping document
 Training, registration, reporting
 Not exempt from:
 Immediately notifying authorities if
dangerous goods are lost or released.
 Filing written report for spills/releases.
 Labeling containers.
 Division 2.1 - Flammable
Gases
 Propane, acetylene
 Division 2.2 - Non-
Flammable Gases
 Refrigerant, nitrogen,
oxygen
 Division 2.3 - Poisonous
Gas
 Carbon dioxide, sulfur
dioxide
 Hazards
 Explosion or fire
 Container rupture
 Container rocketing
 Frostbite
 Asphyxiation
 Toxicity
 Irritation
 Liquids with a flash point < 61deg C
 Commonly used as fuels
 Gasoline, fuel oil, diesel
 Flash Point
 Minimum temperature at which a liquid gives
off sufficient vapour to form an ignitable
mixture with air at the surface of the liquid.
 Hazards
 Fire
 Explosions
 Toxic fumes
 Corrosivity
 Water contamination
 Poisonous or Infectious
Materials
 A solid or liquid that is poisonous
by inhalation of vapours, by skin
contact or by ingestion.
 Examples: pesticides, lead
compounds, disinfectants, some
solvents, hospital wastes.
6
 Types
 Labels: used for packages, cylinders, small
containers
 Placards: used for large containers, trucks,
other transport units
 Signs: special placards such as “Danger”
 Other Marks: additional information (e.g.,
shipping name, PIN, container orientation,
etc. on smaller containers).
 Mandatory Use
 Safety marks used to indicate:
 Presence of dangerous goods
 Type and degree of associated risk
 Safety marks must be used on all containers,
packages, tanks, cylinders and transport units
used for transporting dangerous goods.
 Special Placards
 If the quantities of individual
D A N G E R
classes do not exceed the small
quantity limit, but the total
quantity of dangerous goods
exceeds 454 kg, the a “danger”
placard must be displayed on the
vehicle.
 Segregation of Incompatible Materials
 TDGR have requirements and prohibitions
for transporting incompatible materials
(see Compatibility Chart) on the same
vehicle.
 Examples:
 Liquid fuels may be transported with propane
 Propane & herbicides can only be transported
together if separated such that leakage will
not impact the other material
 Liquid fuels must not be transported with
herbicides/pesticides
Special segregated storage is required for the following Dangerous Goods Classes:
Prescribed substances' under the Dangerous Goods Code are assigned a specific United
Nations "UN" number and are divided into the following nine classes according to their
predominant hazard:

Class 1 - Explosives
Class 2 - Gases (flammable, non-flammable, toxic)
Class 3 - Flammable liquids
Class 4 - Flammable solids, solids liable to spontaneous combustion, 
and substances that emit flammable gases when wet
Class 5 - Oxidising substances (oxidising agents and organic peroxides)
Class 6 - Toxic and infectious substances
Class 7 - Radioactive material
Class 8 - Corrosive substances
Class 9 - Miscellaneous dangerous substances
Subsidiary Risk - dangerous goods that pose more than the risk that is denoted by
their class.
Storage Considerations – what goes with what?
Each class is identified by a distinctive coloured, diamond shaped label
 A discharge, emission or escape from any
container must be reported if:
 Greater than “quantity for immediate
reporting”
 Class 2.1 (Propane): 100L
 Class 3 (Gasoline, Diesel): 200L
 Class 6: (Herbicide, Pesticides): 5kg / 5L
 All fires and explosions involving
dangerous goods must be reported.
 Immediate Notification
A person who has charge of dangerous
goods and discovers or is advised of a spill,
release or fire shall immediately notify:
 Local police
 His/her employer
 Owner, lessee of vehicle
 Owner or consignor or shipment
 Written Report
 Employer must complete Form 2 within 30
days and forward it to Transport Canada.
Class 1 - Explosives

Class 1.1 – Explosives with a mass explosion hazard such as TNT,


Gunpowder, Gelignite, etc.
Class 1.2 – Explosives which are a projectile or fragmentation
hazard, but not a significant mass explosion hazard eg. grenades,
ammunition, etc.
Class 1.3 – Explosives which are a fire and minor blast hazard,
with minor projectile or minor fragmentation hazards.
Class 1.4 – Explosives which are not a significant mass explosion
hazard eg. flares, fireworks, safety cartridges, etc.
Class 1.5 – Explosives with a mass explosion hazard, but are
insensitive substances.
Class 1.6 – Substances which are a minor explosion hazard, very
insensitive substances.
substanc
Pressurized or Liquefied
 Compressed nitrogen and liquefied petroleum
gases (LPG) are examples
Product and container present hazards
Subdivided into 4 divisions
Class 2 - Gases
(flammable, non-flammable, toxic)
Completely gaseous at 20 degrees at Standard Temperature
and Pressure
Class 2.3 – Gases likely to cause death or serious
injury to human health if exposed or by skin contact.
These gases are toxic or corrosive. Lingering and
irritating odours often identify some but not all toxic
gases.

Example: ammonia and sulphur dioxide.

See also Subsidiary Risk for special cases


 Flammable liquids can be ignited at room
temperature.
 Combustible liquids require some degree
of pre-heating to ignite.
 Number 1 RULE- ELIMINATE IGNITION
SOURCES.
Class 3 - Flammable liquids
Liquids, the vapours of which can ignite in air on
contact with a source of ignition. Liquids that can
generate a vapour, forming a flammable mixture with
air.

The vapour can flash momentarily when an ignition


source is present. This property of a flammable liquid
is regarded as the flash point. Therefore this is the
lowest temperature of a liquid which generates
vapours to form a flammable mixture with air and can
catch fire when a flame is applied.

Examples of Class 3 substances:


petrol, alcohols, thinners, solvents, lacquers and
varnishes
Class 3 - Flammable liquids
 Store in an approved flammables cabinet

 Vent cabinet to the outside with forced


extraction
 Max. storage 250 Litres
 Cabinet to be placarded as flammable

Pratt Safety
Class 3 is divided in the following way for packing/transport:
Flammables Cabinet
Class 3 Packing Group I is Boiling Point <=35°C.
model 5560 AS
Class 3 Packing Group II is Flash Point <=23°C, Boiling Point > 35°C.
Class 3 Packing Group III is Flash Point > 23°C to <=61°C, Boiling Point
>35°C.
Class 4 - Flammable Solids
Solid substances which are flammable in air and can sustain
spontaneous combustion and emit flammable gases upon contact with
water.

Class 4.1 – Solids easily ignited eg. by sparks or


flames, or liable to cause fire through friction.
Example: red phosphorus, picric acid, hexamine,
sulphur and naphthalene.

Class 4.2 – Substances liable to spontaneously heat


up and ignite
Examples: activated carbon and white phosphorus.

Class 4.3 – Substance which emits flammable or


toxic gases when wet
Examples: sodium and calcium carbide.
Class 4 - Flammable Solids
Solid substances which are flammable in air and can sustain
spontaneous combustion and emit flammable gases upon contact with
water.
Storage:

All Class 4 substances must be segregated


from Classes 5.1 and 5.2

Class 4.1 and 4.3: Store in segregated storage


area, or with Class 3 substances (eg in
Flammables storage unit). Signed “Class 4.1,
4.3: Flammable Solids”

Class 4.2: Separate from all other classes in a


designated cupboard lined with cement
sheeting or similar flame proof material. Must
be segregated from Classes 3, 4.1, 4.3, 5.1,
5.2. Signed “Class 4.2: Spontaneously
Combustible”
❚ Oxidizers release oxygen to enhance or intensify burn
❚ Strong fuels, oxidizers can create conditions which can lead
to violent combustion
❚ Many organic peroxides are very unstable
Class 5 – Oxidising substances
(oxidising agents and organic peroxides)
Oxygen is generally provided in a reactive form or is liberated to cause an oxidation process.

Class 5.1 – Substances likely to increase the risk and intensity


of fire in other materials (ie Contribute to the combustion of
other materials).

Examples: Hydrogen peroxide and ammonium nitrate,


chlorates.
Class 5 – Oxidising substances
(oxidising agents and organic peroxides)
continued
Oxygen is generally provided in a reactive form or is liberated to cause an oxidation process.

Class 5.2 - Substances that are thermally unstable and likely


to react dangerously with other substances. Substances with
the ability to undergo exothermic self accelerating
decomposition as the substance contains its own oxygen in the
chemical structure.

Decomposition of organic peroxides can lead to flammable and


toxic gases being generated. Many organic peroxides also burn
rapidly and are very sensitive to impact or friction.

Examples: dibenzoyl peroxide and methyl ethyl ketone


peroxide (MEKP)
Class 5 – Oxidising substances
(oxidising agents and organic peroxides)
continued
Oxygen is generally provided in a reactive form or is
liberated to cause an oxidation process.
These substances are incompatible with other substances,
particularly Flammables (solids and liquids), Corrosives.
Flammable matter such as sawdust require segregated
storage away from other materials

CLASS 5 STORAGE:
Separate from all other classes in a designated
cupboard, particularly from Classes 3, 4, and 8

Lockable
Cement sheet lined (eg “Hardiflex”)
Signed (“Class 5: Oxidising Agents”)
Class 6
ClassToxic and
6.1 – Toxic infectious
substances substances
likely to cause death or severe
injury to human or animal health if swallowed, inhaled or by skin
contact.

Examples: Calcium cyanide and lead arsenate.

Class 6.2 - Infectious substances liable to cause death or severe


injury to human or animal health if swallowed, inhaled or by skin
contact.

Substances containing disease yielding organisms and are not


subject to
the regulations of the Australian Dangerous Goods Code.
However, they
are incorporated in the Code if they are capable of spreading
disease
upon exposure.
Stringent clothing and personal protective equipment controls are
required
when handling or in contact with these substances.
 Three Types: Alpha, Beta, Gamma
 Ionizing radiation hazard
 Exposure does not always result in
contamination
 Safety Rules:
 Time, Distance and Shielding
 Shipped in specialized containers
Class 7 - Radioactive
material
Class 7 – Substances (solid or liquid) which spontaneously
emit ionising radiation. Category I, determined by radiation
level of transport package. (Lowest level)

Class 7 - Substances (solid or liquid) which spontaneously


emit ionising radiation. Category II determined by radiation
level of transport package.

Class 7 – Substances (solid or liquid) which spontaneously


emit ionising radiation. Category III determined by radiation
level of transport package
 Those materials which can cause
irreversible damage to human tissue.
 In addition, the fumes or vapors from
many of the materials are also very
hazardous.
 Examples: nitric acid, sodium hydroxide
(caustic soda or lye), hydrochloric acid.
Class 8 - Corrosive
substances
Solids or liquids able to cause, to varying severity, damage to
living tissue. Maybe either acidic or caustic in nature.

Cause burns in contact with skin and eyes.

Many form vapours that are harmful to respiratory system.


Exposure can occur through breathing vapours.

In the event of a leak, these substances also have the ability to


damage or destroy goods and materials or cause other hazards.
Class 8 - Corrosive
substances
Examples:

 Zinc Chloride and soldering fluxes with Zinc


Chloride
 Hydrochloric Acid (“Spirits of Salts”)
 Nitric Acid
 Sulfuric Acid (battery acid)
 Sodium Hydroxide (caustic soda)
 Ammonia solution
 Division 9.1 Misc. dangerous goods.
 Division 9.2 Environmentally
hazardous
substances.
 Division 9.3 Dangerous waste.
Class 9
Miscellaneous dangerous
substances
Substances and articles that present a danger especially
during transport, not covered by other dangerous goods
classes.

Class 9 substances have separate storage and transport


requirements.

Examples: dry ice and asbestos. NB - Aerosols are no


longer Class 9 dangerous goods. They are Class 2.1 or 2.2
(gases) depending on flammability.
 Situation Analysis
 Transporting the following materials using a
pick-up truck from supplier to bush camp.
 3 x 100 lb. propane cylinders
 2 x 205 L drums of diesel fuel
 2 x 205 L drums of gasoline
 2 x 205 L drums of drinking water
 Required TDG Measures
 Individually,quantities of gasoline, diesel
& propane are exempt under s2.31from
having to carry TDG shipping document
and use of placard.
 Total quantity of dangerous goods is
greater than 454 kg:
 “Danger” placard is required.
 Containersmust be secured to the vehicle
and labels must be visible from outside the
vehicle.
It Doesn’t have to be a Semi or a
Training of Compressed Gas
But it will be Dangerous Goods
B L E V E
O I X A X
I Q P P P
L U A O L
I I N R O
N D D S
G I I
N O
G N
S
 The result of a vessel failure in a
fire and release of a pressurized
liquid rapidly into the fire
 A pressure wave, a fire ball, vessel
fragments and burning liquid
droplets are usually the result
FUEL
SOURCE
 Fuels:
 Oxidizers  Liquids
 Liquids  gasoline, acetone,

N)
 Gases ether, pentane

GE
 Oxygen,  Solids

FU
fluorine,  plastics, wood

XY
chlorine dust, fibers, metal

EL
 hydrogen (O particles
peroxide, nitric
R

acid, perchloric
 Gases
AI

acid IGNITION SOURCE  acetylene,


propane, carbon
 Solids
monoxide,
 Metal
hydrogen
peroxides,  Ignition sources
ammonium
nitrate  Sparks, flames, static
electricity, heat
Liquid Leakage
 After an accident or a malfunction a flammable gas
leaks. (Associated probabilities for large and small
leaks)

76
Liquid pool formation
 A liquid pool forms – pool formation model.

77
Pool fire
 There is a probability (e.g. 30%) of ignition.

78
Pool fire
 As the pool fire develops the other compartments are

heated and the enclosed liquid may reach its boiling


point after a while. (Associated probabilities and
models)

79
Explosion (BLEVE)
 Pressure builds up while the container walls weaken
because of the intense heat. This may result
(depending on the amount of leakage and prevailing
conditions) in a “boiling liquid expanding vapour
explosion” (BLEVE).
(Associated probability and consequence modeling)

80
 Flash Point
 Lowest temperature at which a
flammable liquid gives off enough
vapor to form an ignitable mixture
with air

 Flammable Liquids (NFPA)


 Liquids with a flash point < 100°F

 Combustible Liquids (NFPA)


 Liquids with a flash point ≥ 100°F
 Flammable / Explosive Limits
 Range of composition of material in
air which will burn
 UFL – Upper Flammable Limit
 LFL – Lower Flammable Limit SAME
 HEL – Higher Explosive Limit
SAME
 LEL – Lower Explosive Limit

 Measuring These Limits for Vapor-Air


Mixtures
– Known concentrations are placed in a
closed vessel apparatus and then ignition
is attempted
IT
UPPER LIM
CONCENTRATION OF FUEL

E
AUTO

R
SU
IGNITION
ES FLAMMABLE
FLAMMABLE REGION
PR
MIST
REGION
R
PO
VA

LOWER LIM
IT

TEMPERATURE AIT
FLASH
POINT
Limiting O2
LOC Concentration:
Vol. % O2 below
which
1 Atmosphere combustion can’t
25°C occur

FLAMMABLE
HE
MIXTURES
L

LEL
 Hazard: the property of a
substance or situation with the
potential for creating damage

 Risk: the likelihood of a specific


effect within a specified period
 complexfunction of probability,
consequences and vulnerability
Risk assessment and risk analysis of
technical systems can be defined as a set
of systematic methods to:
 Identify hazards
 Quantify risks
 Determine components, safety measures
and/or human interventions important for
worker safety
Risk analysis is teamwork
Ideally risk analysis should be done by bringing
together experts with different backgrounds:
 chemicals
 human error
 process equipment

Risk assessment is a
continuous process!
Risk Analysis

Hazard Identification • ”What if”


• Checklists
• HAZOP
• Task analysis
Hazard & Scenario Analysis

Likelihood Consequences

Risk
Interpretation of the
values
P r e s s u r e -
l i q u e f i e d G a s

I n s t a n t a n e o u s
T a n k R u p t u r e

I m m e d i a t e i g I nn si t t i ao nn t a n e o u s C l o u d /
B L E V E P o o l E v a p o r a t i o n

D i s p e r s i o n

N e a r m i s s I g n i t i o n a n d d e D t o e nl a a y t ie o d n I g n i t i o n
E x p lo s i o n F l a s h f i r e
P r e s s u r e -
l i q u e f i e d G a s

T w o - p h a s e j e t

N o i g n i t i o n I m m e d i a t e i g n i t i o
D i s p e r s i o n J e t F i r e

N o i g n i t i o n D e l a y e d I g nI g i tn i oi t ni o n a n d d e t o n
N e a r m i s s F l a s h f i r e E x p l o s i o n
 Jet
 High speed (high momentum), rapid mixing,
single direction
 Dense (= denser than air) clouds:
 Dense gas ”slumps” in all directions (even
against the wind)
 Dense clouds are shallow
 Density layering (stratification) reduces mixing
 Buoyant (= lighter than air)plume
 plume rise
 Dispatch 0230 hours for car fire (Engine
10)
 E10 arrived and requested FIB for
multiple vehicles with possible structural
exposures (freeway columns and
overpasses)
 12 vehicles damaged or destroyed
 Firefighter near miss when CNG vehicle
exploded as E10 crew approached with a
handline (approximately 50-75’ away)
 Determined to be arson
Fire
Garage
E10 parked outside
outsid
the gate here

Debris from the explosion was thrown


up to 100’ in all directions including
on the over-passes above the
Roof debris

Bumper frame
++
++
100’ Trunk lid
Backhoe

Fuel tank
Roof debris (original location)
Honda CNG Vehicle
Rear of vehicle
Roof is blown completely
off vehicle and doors blown
open
Metal mounting
straps for CNG tank
Trunk lid
Tank initially landed …then was moved down
here, about 100’ away the hill for extinguishmen
Evidence indicates it
may have ricocheted off
the underside of a
freeway overpass (next
picture).
90’
Rear bumper frame 90’+ away
Bumper shrapnel
(note burn marks on
ground)
Roof section about 75’ away
This may be your only warning of
a CNG – fueled vehicle. Typically
located on the trunk lid or bumpe
omposite tank is carbon-fiber / fiberglass
rapped for strength – similar to our SCBA tank
 LEL / UEL = 4 – 16% (gasoline = 1.3 – 7.6)
 1 cubic foot of CNG = 245 cu.ft. of natural
gas at sea level (uncompressed)
 1 cubic foot of CNG weighs 13#
 5.66# = 1 Gasoline Gallon Equivalent
(GGE)
 Honda Civic tank = 8 GGE
 Note: 1 gallon of gasoline properly
vaporized has the explosive equivalency of
83 pounds of dynamite (CDC).
 Determine vehicle type during size-up
 Use 45° approach angle
 Watch for additional hazards
 Consider cooling streams from a distance
 If CNG vehicle, remember best practices:
 #1 – KEYS
 #2 – ELECTRICAL
 #3 – GAS
Inerts

Temperature

Pressure
Source Percent of Accidents
Electrical 23
Smoking 18
Friction 10
Overheated Materials 8
Hot Surfaces 7
Burner Flames 7

Cutting, Welding, Mech. Sparks 6

Static Sparks 1
All Other 20
 Fire
 A slow form of deflagration

 Deflagration
 Propagating reactions in which the energy
transfer from the reaction zone to the unreacted
zone is accomplished thru ordinary transport
processes such as heat and mass transfer.

 Detonation / Explosion
 Propagating reactions in which energy is
transferred from the reaction zone to the
unreacted zone on a reactive shock wave. The
velocity of the shock wave always exceeds sonic
velocity in the reactant.
Stored Volumes of Ideal Gas at 20° C
PRESSURE, psig TNT EQUIV., lbs. per
ft3
10 0.001
100 0.02
1000 1.42
10000 6.53

TNT equivalent = 5 x 105 calories/lbm


U V C E
N A L X
C P O P
O O U L
N R D O
F S
I I
N O
E N
D S

 An overpressure caused when a gas cloud


detonates or deflagrates in open air rather
than simply burns.
 Cloud will spread from too rich, through
flammable range to too lean.

 Edges start to burn through deflagration


(steady state combustion).

 Cloud will disperse through natural convection.

 Flame velocity will increase with containment


and turbulence.

 If velocity is high enough cloud will detonate.

 If cloud is small enough with little confinement


it cannot explode.
 Confinement  Large Vapor Clouds
 Higher probability of finding
 Prevents escape, ignition source; more likely to
increases turbulence generate overpressure

 Cloud composition  Source


 Unsaturated molecules  Flashing liquids; high
– ‘all ethylene clouds pressures; large, low or
explode’; low ignition downward facing leaks
energies; high flame
speeds

 Good weather
 Stable atmospheres,
low wind speeds
Peak Equivalent
OverpressurWind Velocity Effects
e mph
psi
1 Knock personnel
2 70 down
5 160
10 290 Rupture eardrums
15
20 470 Damage lungs
30 670
35
50 940 Threshold fatalities
65 50% fatalities
99% fatalities
 World of explosives is dominated by TNT
impact which is understood.
 Vapor clouds, by analysis of incidents,
seem to respond like TNT if we can
determine the equivalent TNT.
 1 pound of TNT has a LHV of 1890 BTU/lb.
 1 pound of hydrocarbon has a LHV of
about 19000 BTU/lb.
 A vapor cloud with a 10% efficiency will
respond like a similar weight of TNT.
INVENTORY UVCE BLEVE FIRE
(tons)
1 120 18 Distance
2 150 36 in Meters
5 200 60
10 250 90 20
20 310 13 30
50 420 0 36
100 530 20 50
200 670 0 60
500 900 28 100
1000 1150 0 130
40
0
60
 Fire or Flames  Typical Control
 Spacing and Layout
 Furnaces and Boilers
 Spacing and Layout
 Flares
 Work Procedures
 Welding  Work Procedures
 Sparks from Tools  Sewer Design, Diking,
 Spread from Other Areas Weed Control,
Housekeeping
Matches and Lighters  Procedures
GROUNDING

BONDING
 Several thousands of trucks carrying dangerous goods circulate
within Canadian roads on daily basis.
 They utilise urban roads, rural roads, highways, tunnels and
long bridges and in some case they are not allowed in some of
them.
 However the actual accident risk and impact is not calculated.
 In addition, when, due to unforeseen events (traffic jams,
accidents, etc.), they need to change route, they do not have any
particular guidance on the safest alternative nor are
consequences of road choice to the business chain and societal
risk calculated.

137
Liquid Leakage
 After an accident or a malfunction a flammable gas
leaks. (Associated probabilities for large and small
leaks)

138
Explosion (BLEVE)
 Pressure builds up while the container walls weaken
because of the intense heat. This may result
(depending on the amount of leakage and prevailing
conditions) in a “boiling liquid expanding vapour
explosion” (BLEVE).
(Associated probability and consequence modeling)

139
 The Individual Risk for a
point-location around the
dangerous goods
transportation activity is
defined as the probability
that an average
unprotected person
permanently present at
that point location, would
get killed due to an
accident during the
dangerous goods
transportation activity.
 It is used to estimate the
risk of a hypothetical
“average” individual as a
function of distance from
the hazard. Individual

140
Class I Flammable gases/vapors present
 National
Electrical Class II Combustible dusts present
Code (NEC)
Class III Combustible dusts present but not
defines area
likely in suspension
classification
s as a Group A Acetylene
function of Group B Hydrogen, ethylene
the nature
and degree Group C CO, H2S
of process Group D Butane, ethane
hazards
present Division 1 Flammable concentrations
normally present
Division 2 Flammable materials are normally
in closed systems
 Anyone involved in the transportation of
regulated hazardous materials must be
trained
 Packaging shipments
 Preparing shipping papers
 Receiving hazardous materials
 CANUTEC (Canadian Transport Emergency Centre)
provides 24-hour-a-day bilingual emergency advisory and
regulatory information service. CANUTEC's experienced
professional chemists assist emergency responders in the
event of a dangerous goods accident.
 It includes information on accident flows and trends,
regulatory interpretations, reports on national and
international events, regulatory and compliance
requirements and activities, risk management and
assessment techniques, emergency response and data
compilation and reports.