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Applications of

Newton’s Laws

(Chapter 6)

Reading and Review

Going Up I

A block of mass m rests on the floor of a) N > mg

an elevator that is moving upward at

b) N = mg

constant speed. What is the relationship

between the force due to gravity and the

c) N < mg (but not zero)

normal force on the block? d) N = 0

e) depends on the size of the

elevator

m

Going Up I

A block of mass m rests on the floor of a) N > mg

an elevator that is moving upward at

b) N = mg

constant speed. What is the relationship

between the force due to gravity and the

c) N < mg (but not zero)

normal force on the block? d) N = 0

e) depends on the size of the

elevator

must have no net force on it. The forces on v

it are N (up) and mg (down), so N = mg, just

like the block at rest on a table.

m

Going Up II

A block of mass m rests on the a) N > mg

floor of an elevator that is b) N = mg

accelerating upward. What is c) N < mg (but not zero)

the relationship between the d) N = 0

force due to gravity and the

e) depends on the size of the

normal force on the block? elevator

m

a

Going Up II

A block of mass m rests on the a) N > mg

floor of an elevator

that is b) N = mg

accelerating upward. What is c) N < mg (but not zero)

the relationship between the d) N = 0

force due to gravity and the

e) depends on the size of the

normal force on the block? elevator

N

must have a net upward force. The

m

forces on it are N (up) and mg (down), a>0

so N must be greater than mg in order mg

to give the net upward force! F = N – mg = ma > 0

Follow-up: What is the normal force if

→N = mg + ma > mg

the elevator is in free fall downward?

Frictional Forces

Friction has its basis in surfaces that are not

completely smooth:

Kinetic friction

Kinetic friction: the friction experienced by surfaces

sliding against one another.

This frictional force is proportional to the contact force

between the two surfaces (normal force):

kinetic friction.

opposing motion of two surfaces

Frictional Forces

fk force on a body, there is an

opposing reaction force on

fk the other body

Frictional Forces

fk fs

fk fs

when moving, one bumps when relative motion

“skip” over each other stops, surfaces settle into

one another

kinetic friction static friction

Static Friction

The static frictional force tries to keep an object from

starting to move when other forces are applied.

may take on any value from zero to the maximum...

depending on what is needed to keep

the sum of forces to zero.

force is also proportional to

the contact force

Similarities between

→normal forces and

→static friction

• Variable; as strong as necessary to

prevent relative motion either

- parallel to surface (friction)

Characteristics of Frictional Forces

• Frictional forces always oppose relative motion

the area of contact between objects

• Kinetic frictional force is also independent of the

relative speed of the surfaces.

independent of the mass

of objects, but in (most)

cases forces are not:

(twice the mass

→ twice the weight

→ twice the normal force

→ twice the frictional force)

Coefficients of Friction

Q: what units?

Going Sledding

Your little sister wants a) pushing her from behind

you to give her a ride

b) pulling her from the front

on her sled. On level

c) both are equivalent

ground, what is the

d) it is impossible to move the sled

easiest way to

accomplish this? e) tell her to get out and walk

2

Going Sledding

Your little sister wants a) pushing her from behind

you to give her a ride

b) pulling her from the front

on her sled. On level

c) both are equivalent

ground, what is the

d) it is impossible to move the sled

easiest way to

accomplish this? e) tell her to get out and walk

(in addition to mg), so the normal force

is larger. In case 2, the force F is 1

pulling up, against gravity, so the

normal force is lessened. Recall that

the frictional force is proportional to

the normal force.

2

Measuring static coefficient of friction

If the block doesn’t move, a=0.

N x

fs

Wx

W

Acceleration of a block on an incline

If the object is sliding down -

y

v

N x

fk

Wx

Wy

W

Acceleration of a block on an incline

If the object is sliding up -

y

v

N x

Wx

fk

Wy

W

What will happen

when it stops?

A mass m, initially moving with a speed of 5.0 m/s, slides up a 30o ramp.

If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.4, how far up the ramp will the

mass slide?

If the coefficient of static friction is 0.6, will the mass eventually slide

down the ramp?

A mass m, initially moving with a speed of 5.0 m/s, slides up a 30o ramp.

If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.4, how far up the ramp will the

mass slide?

If the coefficient of static friction is 0.6, will the mass eventually slide

down the ramp?

yˆ : 0 N mg cos N mg cos

xˆ : Fx mg sin k N mg sin k mg cos

Fx

ax

m

9.81 sin 30o 0.4cos30o 8.30 m s 2

v 2f 0 v02 2ax x f x0

x f x0 x v 2ax 5.0 2 8.30 1.51m

2

0

2

?

Fx mg sin s N mg sin s mg cos

mg sin s cos mg sin 30o s cos30o

mg 0.02 0

mass will remain at rest

Sliding Down II

A mass m is placed on an a) not move at all

inclined plane ( > 0) and

b) slide a bit, slow down, then stop

slides down the plane with

c) accelerate down the incline

constant speed. If a similar

block (same ) of mass 2m d) slide down at constant speed

were placed on the same e) slide up at constant speed

incline, it would:

m

Sliding Down II

A mass m is placed on an a) not move at all

inclined plane ( > 0) and

b) slide a bit, slow down, then stop

slides down the plane with

c) accelerate down the incline

constant speed. If a similar

block (same ) of mass 2m d) slide down at constant speed

were placed on the same e) slide up at constant speed

incline, it would:

N

The component of gravity acting down f

the plane is double for 2m. However, the

normal force (and hence the friction

Wy

force) is also double (the same factor!).

W

This means the two forces still cancel to

Wx

give a net force of zero.

Translational Equilibrium

= the net force on an object is zero

at constant velocity

Tension

When you pull on a string or rope, it becomes

taut. We say that there is tension in the string.

is along the string!

Tension in a chain

Tup

Tdown

W

Massless rope

The tension in a real rope will vary along its

length, due to the weight of the rope.

T3 = mg + Wr

In this class: we will assume

that all ropes, strings, wires,

T2 = mg + Wr/2 etc. are massless unless

otherwise stated.

everywhere in a

massless rope!

m

Idealization: The Pulley

An ideal pulley is one that only changes the

direction of the tension

problems of combined motion

distance hands move

speed of box =

speed of hands

acceleration of box =

acceleration of hands

Tension in the rope?

Translational equilibrium?

Translational equilibrium?

T

T Tension in the rope?

2.00 kg

W

m1 : x :

y:

m2 : y :

Three Blocks

Three blocks of mass 3m, 2m, and a) T1 > T2 > T3

m are connected by strings and b) T1 < T2 < T3

pulled with constant acceleration a. c) T1 = T2 = T3

What is the relationship between d) all tensions are zero

the tension in each of the strings? e) tensions are random

3m T3 T2 T1

2m m

Three Blocks

Three blocks of mass 3m, 2m, and a) T1 > T2 > T3

m are connected by strings and b) T1 < T2 < T3

pulled with constant acceleration a. c) T1 = T2 = T3

What is the relationship between d) all tensions are zero

the tension in each of the strings? e) tensions are random

of blocks along, so it

a

must be the largest. T2

pulls the last two T3 T2 T1

3m

2m m

masses, but T3 only

pulls the last mass.

Follow-up: What is T1 in terms of m and a?

Over the Edge

In which case does block m a) case (1)

experience a larger acceleration? b) acceleration is zero

In case (1) there is a 10 kg mass

c) both cases are the same

hanging from a rope and falling.

In case (2) a hand is providing a d) depends on value of m

constant downward force of 98 N. e) case (2)

Assume massless ropes.

m m

a

10 kg a

F = 98 N

Over the Edge

In which case does block m a) case (1)

experience a larger acceleration? b) acceleration is zero

In case (1) there is a 10 kg mass

c) both cases are the same

hanging from a rope and falling.

In case (2) a hand is providing a d) depends on value of m

constant downward force of 98 N. e) case (2)

Assume massless ropes.

98 N due to the hand. In

a

case (1) the tension is 10 kg a

less than 98 N because F = 98 N

the block is accelerating

down. Only if the block Case (1) Case (2)

were at rest would the

tension be equal to 98 N.

Elevate Me

You are holding your 2.0 kg a) in freefall

physics text book while b) moving upwards with a constant

standing on an elevator. velocity of 4.9 m/s

of 4.9 m/s

it weighs exactly 2.5 kg. From

this, you conclude that the d) experiencing a constant acceleration

of about 2.5 m/s2 upward

elevator is:

e) experiencing a constant acceleration

of about 2.5 m/s2 downward

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