You are on page 1of 51

BITS Pilani

Dr. K. Ram chandra murthy
Assistant Professor, BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
BITS Pilani
Scope of this lecture

 Matrices
• Determinants, Inverse of a matrix, Cramer’s rule
• Eigen value problem
 Vector Calculus
• Vector function
• Motion on a curve, curvature and components of
acceleration
• Partial derivatives, directional derivatives
• Tangent planes, normal lines
• Curl and divergence

2 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

BITS Pilani

Matrices
Determinants

• Determinant of a 2  2 matrix

 a11 a12  a11 a12

A  det A   a11a22  a12 a21
 21 22 
a a a21 a22

• Determinant of a 3  3 matrix
 a11 a12 a13  a11 a12 a13
  det A  a21 a22
A   a21 a22 a23  a23
a a33 
 31 a32 a31 a32 a33
 a11a22 a33  a12 a23a31  a13a21a32
a13a22 a31  a11a23 a32  a12 a21a33
4 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Determinants

A determinant of order n is a scalar associated with an n x n

(hence square!) matrix and is denoted by

For n=1,
For n>1,

where,

Determinants

1)

Soln:

2)

Soln:

6 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Properties of Determinants

• If AT is the transpose of A, then det AT = det A

• If any two rows (columns) of A are the same, det A = 0
• If all entries in a row (column) of A are zero, then det A = 0
• If B is obtained by interchanging any two rows (columns) of A,
then det B = –det A

7 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Properties of Determinants

• If B is obtained from A by multiplying a row (column) by a

nonzero real number k, then det B = k det A
• If A and B are both n  n matrices,
det 𝑨𝑩 = det 𝑨 . det(𝑩)
• If A is an n  n triangular matrix,
det 𝑨 = 𝑎11 𝑎22 … 𝑎𝑛𝑛

8 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Properties of Determinants

Soln:

9 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Properties of Determinants

Soln:

10 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Inverse of a Matrix

• If A is an n  n matrix and there exists an n  n matrix B such

that AB  BA  I , then A is said to be nonsingular or
invertible and B is the inverse of A

11 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Inverse of a Matrix

A nonsingular matrix A is said to be orthogonal if 𝐴−1 = 𝐴𝑇 .

Verify that the below matrix is orthogonal

Soln:

12 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Inverse of a Matrix

Soln:

13 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Inverse of a Matrix

Soln:

Cramer’s Rule

• For a system of n linear equations in n variables

𝑎11 𝑥1 + 𝑎12 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎1𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏1
𝑎21 𝑥1 + 𝑎22 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎2𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏2

𝑎𝑛1 𝑥1 + 𝑎𝑛2 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏𝑛

it is convenient to define a special matrix

𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎1𝑘−1 𝑏1 𝑎1𝑘+1 …𝑎1𝑛
𝑎21 𝑎22 ⋯ 𝑎
2𝑘−1 𝑏2 𝑎2𝑘+1 … 𝑎2𝑛
𝑨𝑘 = ⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮
𝑎𝑛1 𝑎𝑛2 ⋯ 𝑎𝑛𝑘−1 𝑏𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑘+1 … 𝑎𝑛𝑛

Cramer’s Rule

det A1 det A 2 det A n

x1  , x2  , xn 
det A det A det A
where 𝐴𝑘 , 𝑘 = 1,2, … , 𝑛 is given by the special matrix
previously defined

16 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The Eigenvalue Problem

• It is often important to determine if there exist nonzero n  1

matrices K such that the product vector AK is a constant
multiple  of K
• The problem of solving AK  K for nonzero vectors K is the
eigenvalue problem for A
• The solution vector K is said to be an eigenvector
corresponding to the eigenvalue 

17 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The Eigenvalue Problem

• Consider the 2D state of stress, 𝜎, in a material, at

an infinitesimal volume located at (x,y) as shown.
• The same stress tensor transforms to 𝜎′ in a rotated
frame depending on 𝜃.
𝜎𝑥𝑥 𝜎𝑥𝑦 𝜎𝑥𝑥 ′ 𝜎𝑥𝑦 ′
• 𝜎= 𝜎 𝜎 and 𝜎′ =
𝑦𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝜎𝑦𝑥 ′ 𝜎𝑦𝑦 ′
• If the coordinate system is rotated (along the
principal directions), only normal stresses exist and
shear stresses are zero.
• These principal stresses and principal directions (x’
and y’) can be respectively found by finding
eigenvalues and eigenvectors of 𝜎.

18 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The Eigenvalue Problem

• We must have det  A  I   0 to find a nonzero solution for K

• det  A  I   0 is the characteristic equation of A
• To find an eigenvector corresponding to an eigenvalue, we
solve the system of equations  A  I  K  0 by applying
Gauss–Jordan elimination to  A   I 0 

19 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The Eigenvalue Problem

•  = 0 is an eigenvalue of A if and only if A is singular

• If  is an eigenvalue of nonsingular matrix A with eigenvector
K, the 1/ is an eigenvalue of A–1 with the same K
• The eigenvalues of an upper triangular, lower triangular, and
diagonal matrix are the main diagonal entries

20 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The Eigenvalue Problem

Find the eigen value and eigen vector of the given matrix

Soln:

21 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The Eigenvalue Problem

Find the eigen value and eigen vector of the given matrix

Soln:

22 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The Eigenvalue Problem

BITS Pilani

Vector Calculus
Vector Functions

A vector function r has components that are functions of a

parameter t

r  t   f  t  , g  t  , h t   f t  i  g t  j  h t  k

curve C

Vector Functions

lim r  t   lim f  t  ,lim g  t  ,lim h  t 

t a t a t a t a

For all t for which the limit exists,

1
r  t   lim r  t   t   r  t  
t 0  t

If the components are differentiable,

r  t   f   t  , g   t  , h  t 
If the components are integrable,
 r  t     f  t  dt  i    g  t  dt  j    h  t  dt  k
26 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Vector Functions

From the chain rule, where s  u  t  is a differentiable scalar

function,
dr dr ds
  r  s  u   t 
dt ds dt

Vector Functions

𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑡 ෠ find lim 𝑟(𝑡)

Given that 𝑟 𝑡 = 𝑖Ƹ + (𝑡 − 2)5 𝑗Ƹ + 𝑡ln𝑡𝑘,
𝑡 + 𝑡→0
Soln:

Vector Functions

Soln:

Soln:

Vector Functions

Find the indicated derivative. Assume that all vector functions

are differentiable.

Soln:

30 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Motion on a Curve

For a body moving along a curve,

position r t   f t  i  g t  j  h t  k
velocity v  t   r  t   f  t  i  g  t  j  h t  k
acceleration a  t   r  t   f   t  i  g  t  j  h t  k

For circular motion in a plane

position r  t   r0 cos ti  r0 sin tj
centripetal acceleration a  t   r  t    2r

For projectiles,
1 2
x t    v0 cos  t y  t    gt   v0 sin   t  s0
2
31 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Motion on a Curve

Suppose 𝑟 𝑡 = 𝑡 2 𝑖Ƹ + 𝑡 3 − 2𝑡 𝑗Ƹ + 𝑡 3 − 5𝑡 𝑘෠ is the position

vector of a moving particle. At what points does the particle pass
through the XY-plane? What are its velocity and acceleration at
these points?
Soln:

32 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Motion on a Curve

A shell is fired from ground level with an initial speed of 480 ft/s
at an angle of elevation of 30o. Find:
(a) a vector function and parametric equations of the shell’s
trajectory,
(b) the maximum altitude attained,
(c) the range of the shell, and
(d) the speed at impact
Soln:

33 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Motion on a Curve

34 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Partial Derivatives

If z  f  x, y  the partial derivative with respect to x is

dz f  x  x, y   f  x, y 
 lim
dx x0 x
and with respect to y is
dz f  x, y  y   f  x, y 
 lim
dy x0 y

35 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Partial Derivatives

Soln:

Soln:

36 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Partial Derivatives

Soln:

Scalar field

If we define a scalar at every

point P in the domain of
definition, then it defines a
scalar field.

Source: https://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/ceres-average-temperature-0-degrees.png

38 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Directional Derivative

f f
Gradient of a function is f  x, y   i j
x y

Consider h   x    y   0
2 2

39 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Directional Derivative

40 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Directional Derivative

Soln:

Soln:

41 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Directional Derivative

Find the directional derivative of the given function at the given

point in the indicated direction.

Soln:

42 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Tangent Plane and Normal Lines

The normal line to a surface F  x, y, z   c at P is

x  x0 y  y0 z  z0
 
Fx  x0 , y0 , z0  Fy  x0 , y0 , z0  Fz  x0 , y0 , z0 

43 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Tangent Plane and Normal Lines

Find the points on the given surface at which the gradient is

parallel to the indicated vector.

Soln:

44 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Tangent Plane and Normal Lines

Find an equation of the tangent plane to the graph of the given

equation at the indicated point.

Soln:

Vector field

Similarly, If we define a vector function v = 𝑣 𝑃 =

[𝑣1 𝑃 , 𝑣2 𝑃 , 𝑣3 𝑃 ], at every point P in the domain of definition,
then this vector function defines a vector field.

46 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Divergence of a Vector field

If 𝒗 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 = 𝑣1 𝐢 + 𝑣2 𝒋 + 𝑣3 𝒌 is a differentiable vector function of

cartesian coordinates, then divergence of the vector function v, is
defined by,
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
div 𝐯 = 𝛁. 𝒗 = 𝒊+ 𝒋 + 𝒌 . (𝑣1 𝐢 + 𝑣2 𝒋 + 𝑣3 𝒌)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝜕𝑣1 𝜕𝑣2 𝜕𝑣3
= + +
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
Ex: If

It signifies the outflow minus inflow of a physical quantity. If 𝒗 is the

velocity field, then 𝛻. 𝑣 = 0 means the flow is incompressible.

47 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Curl of a Vector field

If 𝒗 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 = 𝑣1 𝐢 + 𝑣2 𝒋 + 𝑣3 𝒌 is a differentiable vector function

of cartesian coordinates, then curl of the vector function v, is
defined by,
𝒊 𝒋 𝒌
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝒗 = 𝛁 × 𝒗 =
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝑣1 𝑣2 𝑣3
𝜕𝑣3 𝜕𝑣2 𝜕𝑣1 𝜕𝑣3 𝜕𝑣2 𝜕𝑣1
= − 𝒊+ − 𝒋+ − 𝒌
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

48 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Curl & Divergence of a Vector field

Find the curl and the divergence of the given vector field

Soln:

Soln:

49 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Curl & Divergence of a Vector field

Soln:

50 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Curl of a Vector field

Ex: If