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Basics of Cryptography

• What is Cryptography?

- Plaintext

- Ciphertext

- Encryption: c = Ee(p)

- Decryption: p = Dd(c)

Kerckhoff’s Principle:

“The secrecy should be in the key used

for decryption, not in the decryption or

encryption algorithms”

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 2

Types of Cryptography

1. Secret Key Cryptography:

- Both sender and receiver share a common

secret, ie. e = d

- Also called as “Symmetric key Cryptography”

- Two distinct keys forming a key pair are used

- Encryption key/ Public key

- Decryption key/ Private key

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 3

Example: If Alka wants to send confidential message

to Brijesh

Case 1: Secret Key Cryptography:

Both share a common key, k

Operation by Alka : c = Ek(p)

Opeartion by Brijech: p = Dk(c)

Assuming Brijesh have key public-private key pair,

Operation by Alka : c = EB.pu(p)

Opeartion by Brijech: p = DB.pr(c)

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 4

Types of Attacks

• Cryptographic algorithm is secure if a

cryptanalyst is unable to

a) Obtain plaintext from given ciphertext

b) Deduce the secret key or the private key

• Types:

Known ciphertext attack

Known plaintext attack

Chosen plaintext attack

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 5

Brute force attempt to obtain a key from known plaintext

Let (p1,c1), (p2,c2), … (pm,cm) be plaintext-ciphertext pairs

for(each potential key value in key space)

{

proceed = true;

i=1;

while(proceed == true && i <= m) {

if(ci != Ek(pi))

proceed = false;

i++;

}

if(i = m+1)

print (“Key value is k”);

}

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 6

ELEMENTARY SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS

1. Monoalphabetic ciphers:

- most basic cipher is substitution cipher

- Let ∑ denote set of alphabets, {A,B, … ,Z}

- This approach defines the permutation of elements in ∑

- There are 26! Permutations.

alphabet in a text by another alphabet k positions away.

[If k = 3]

D for A, E for B,…, A for X, B for Y,etc.

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 7

Example Cont..d

Plaintext: WHAT IS THE POPULATION OF MARS

NOTE:

Here, each letter is substituted by another unique

letter, hence such ciphers are called

“monoalphabetic”

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 8

2. Polyalphabetic Ciphers

• Ciphertext corresponding to a particular

character is not fixed.

i. Vigenere Cipher:

- It uses a multi digit key k1,k2,….,km.

- Plaintext is split into number of blocks, each of

m consecutive characters

- 1st letter of each block replaced by letter k1

positions to its right, 2nd by a letter k2

positions to the right, and so on.

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 9

Example:

P’text: W i s h i n g Y o u M u c h

Key : 04 19 03 22 07 12 05 11 04 19 03 22 07 12

C’text: A B V D P Y L J S N P Q J T

P’text: S u c c e s s

Key : 05 11 04 19 03 22 07

C’text: X F G V H O Z

ie. Key string repeats after 8 positions

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 10

2. The Hill Cipher

• Plaintext is broken into blocks of size m.

• Here, Key is a m X m matrix of integers between 0 to 25.

• Let p1, p2, p3, …,pm be the numeric representation of

characters in plaintext.

• Let c1, c2, c3, …,cm represent corresponding characters in

ciphertext.

• To compute a ciphertext, we use the mapping,

A -> 0, B -> 1, . . . , Z -> 25

• Now,

c1 = p1 k11 + p2 k21 + . . . + pm km1 mod 26

c2 = p1 k12 + p2 k22 + . . . + pm km1 mod 26

...

cm = p1k1m + p2k2m+ . . . + pmkmm mod 26

In general, c=pK

where, i) c and p are row vectors of ciphertext & plaintext resp’ly,

ii) K is m X m matrix comprising the key

p = c K-1

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 12

Example:

Consider a Hill cipher using block size = 2 (m=2)

Let, K= 3 7

15 12

Let, a block of plaintext be (H I)

Numeric equivalent of this block is (7 8)

Wkt, c=pK

c = (7 8) * 3 7

15 12

= (11 15)

= (L P)

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 13

ELEMENTARY TRANSPOSITION CIPHERS

permutes the bits in a block of plaintext.

and 1’s in a block doesn’t change after shuffling.

Example:

Plaintext: b e g i

Begin Operation at Noon n o p e

r a t i

o n a t

n o o n

Let us re-arrange the rows as follows,

Row 1 ->3, Row 2 -> 5, Row 3 ->2, Row 4 -> 1, Row 5 -> 4.

The resulting matrix is o n a t

r a t I

b e g i

n o o n

n o p e

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 15

• We now re-arrange the columns as follows,

Column 1->4, Column 2->3, Column 3->1, Column 4 ->2

t i a r

g i e b

o n o n

p e o n

ATNOTIARGIEBONONPEON

Another example:

• C’text: 1 1 K C T A T A M M O C P M 5 1 C E N E

Other Cipher properties

• Confusion & Diffusion:

Confusion is the property of a cipher where it

doesn’t provide any description/clue regarding

the relationship between cipher-text and key.

where block of the Plain-text is irretrievably

scattered across the blocks of cipher-text.

• Block Ciphers & Stream Ciphers

In Block Ciphers, plaintext is split into fixed size chunks

called blocks. Here, each block is encrypted separately

and usually same key is used for all blocks.

Example: DES, AES, RSA, ECC, etc.

generate a pseudo random key stream as a function of

fixed length key and a per message bit string.

Example: RC4 used in wireless LAN protocol.

less complicated.

Prepared by: Mohan Gholap 19

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