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IMMUNOLOGY

By group 7
 Immune system = cells, tissues, and molecules that
mediate resistance to infections
 Immunology = study of structure and function of the
immune system
 Immunity = resistance of a host to pathogens and
their toxic effects
 Immune response = collective and coordinated
response to the introduction of foreign substances in
an individual mediated by the cells and molecules of
the immune system
 Tonsils and adenoids
 Thymus
 Lymph nodes
 Spleen
 Payer’s patches
 Appendix
 Lymphatic vessels
 Bone marrow
 Lymphocytes
 T-lymphocytes
 B-Lymphocytes, plasma cells
 natural killer lymphocytes
 Monocytes, Macrophage
 Granulocytes
 neutrophils
 eosinophils
 basophils
 Antibodies
 Complement
 Cytokines
 Interleukines
 Interferons
1. Innate (non-adaptive)
2. Acquired (adaptive)
Innate immunity
• This natural immune system taken from
birth is the first line of defense against
invasive microorganisms and has the
ability to immediately recognize certain
microorganisms and fight them.
Innate immunity: mechanisms
• Mechanical barriers / surface secretion
– skin, acidic pH in stomach, cilia
• Humoral mechanisms
– lysozymes, basic proteins, complement,
interferons
• Cellular defense mechanisms
– natural killer cells neutrophils, macrophages,,
mast cells, basophils, eosinophils
Adaptive immunity:
second line of response
• The immune system adapts as a second line
of defense against foreign objects, such as
bacteria, viruses, toxins, and also provides
protection against the re-addition of the
same pathogen.
Adaptive immunity: mechanisms
• Cell-mediated immune response (CMIR)
– T-lymphocytes
– eliminate intracellular microbes that survive
within phagocytes or other infected cells
• Humoral immune response (HIR)
– B-lymphocytes
– mediated by antibodies
– eliminate extra-cellular
microbes and their toxins
T lymphocytes
2 types
• helper T- lymphocytes (CD4+)
– CD4+ T cells activate phagocytes to kill
microbes
• cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CD8+)
– CD8+ T cells destroy infected cells containing
microbes or microbial proteins
Antibodies (immunoglobulins)
• Antibodies or immunoglobulins (Ig) are
glycoproteins that are made in response to an
antigen and can recognize and bind to antigens.
Antibodies are present in blood serum, fluid in
tissues, and mucosal surfaces of vertebrate
animals.
• Five kinds of antibodies
– IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
IgG
• IgG antibodies circulate in the body and
are mostly found in the blood, lymph
system, and intestines.
• This type of antibody in the body has a
strong anti-bacterial and viral effect, and
neutralizes.
IgM
• These antibodies are in the blood, lymph, and on
the surface of cells B.
• Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is the first antibody
produced by the body to fight the antigen.
IgA
• constitutes 15-20% of the total plasma
immunoglobulin antibody essential for
initial protection against invasion of
antigens.
• These antibodies are found in various
defense secretions, such as lacrimal fluid,
mucus (in the digestive and respiratory
tract), saliva (protecting the mouth),
mother's milk (protecting the baby's
digestive tract surface), sweat and bile.
IgD

• IgD is a very small amount of antibodies


found in the blood, lymph, and on the
surface of B cells
IgE

• IgE is a type of antibody in the body that


circulates in the bloodstream
• IgE is important against parasite infections
• This type of antibody sometimes also causes
acute allergic reactions in the body
Hypersensitivity reactions
• Cause cell damage through excessive
immune response to antigens
• Hypersensitivity
– overreaction to infectious agents
• Allergy
– overreaction to environmental substances
• Autoimmunity
– overreaction to self
Immunodeficiency
• Congenital (primary) immunodeficiency
– genetic abnormality
• defect in lymphocyte maturation

• Acquired (secondary) immunodeficiency


– results from infections, nutritional
deficiencies or treatments
• AIDS, chronic leukemia