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Closing the Gaps in Inertial Motion Tracking

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Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)

Accelerometer

Gyroscope

Magnetometer

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)

Accelerometer

Gyroscope

Magnetometer

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)

Accelerometer

Gyroscope

Magnetometer

Lot of work in inertial motion tracking

IMU 3D

Data Motion Trajectory

Tracking

Algorithm

Lot of work in inertial motion tracking

IMU 3D

Data Motion Trajectory

Tracking

Algorithm

This paper doesn’t solve it either … however, makes progress

Lot of work in inertial motion tracking

IMU 3D

Data Motion Trajectory

Tracking

Algorithm

This paper doesn’t solve it either … however, makes progress

Am struggling to explain our algorithm … so will start from scratch

One Prerequisite Slide: Rotation Matrices

• Rotation is a function

0 90° 0

Y: X:

1 −1 1

𝑅𝑜𝑡 90° = = Y:

0

1

X:

0

cos 90° − sin 90° 1 0 0 −1

=

sin 90° cos 90° 0 1 1 0

3×3

Rotation =

Matrix

MUSE: Our Goal is 3D Localization

Map

Initial Location

3D

Algorithm

IMU = Accel + Gyro + Mag Trajectory

Let’s Understand the Inputs

𝑥0 𝑦0 𝑧0 𝑇

Initial Location

Algorithm

IMU = Accel + Gyro + Mag

𝑎𝑥 𝑔𝑥 𝑚𝑥

Accel. = 𝑎𝑦 Gyro. = 𝑔𝑦 Mag. = 𝑚𝑦

𝑎𝑧 𝑔𝑧 𝑚𝑧

(Linear Acceleration) (Angular Velocity) (Earth’s Magnetic North)

Delta rotation in unit time

Can we solve localization with these inputs?

𝑥0 𝑦0 𝑧0 𝑇

Initial Location ? 𝑥𝑡

Algorithm 𝑦𝑡

IMU = Accel + Gyro + Mag

𝑧𝑡

One possibility is:

𝑥0 𝑦0 𝑧0 𝑇

Initial Location 𝑥0 𝑡 𝑥𝑡

𝑦0 + ඵ 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙. 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑦𝑡

Accel., Gyro., Mag.

IMU 𝑧0 0 𝑧𝑡

𝑎𝑥

But there is one BIG problem: Accel. = 𝑎𝑦 is in local reference frame

𝑎𝑧

𝑎𝑥

But there is one BIG problem: Accel. = 𝑎𝑦 is in local reference frame

𝑎𝑧

𝑎𝑥

But there is one BIG problem: Accel. = 𝑎𝑦 is in local reference frame

𝑎𝑧

As an analogy

New Delhi Airport What is Map

- Frontwards

3D

- Rightwards

Accelerating Trajectory

- Upwards

𝑎𝑥 : Frontwards w.r.t. the earth?

𝑎𝑦 : Rightwards

𝑎𝑧 : Upwards

This makes orientation necessary

This makes orientation necessary

Frontwards Northwards

Plane’s Own Rightwards Eastwards

Upwards Vertical

Front

Up

Right

This makes orientation necessary

Frontwards Northwards

Plane’s Own Rightwards Eastwards

Upwards Vertical

Up: Vertical

Front: North

Right: East

So, how will orientation solve the problem?

What we need to do is:

Initial Location 𝑥𝑡

Accel. Accel. + 𝑦𝑡

Gyro. 3D IMU ඵ 𝑧𝑡

IMU (Local) 𝑡

Mag. Orient. (Global)

So how to get 3D orientation?

1) Gravity is exactly in my downward direction

2) North is exactly in my frontward direction

So how to get 3D orientation?

1) Gravity is exactly in my downward direction

2) North is exactly in my frontward direction

So how to get 3D orientation?

1) Gravity is exactly in my downward direction

2) North is exactly in my frontward direction

Rotation 𝑎𝑦 = 0

Matrix 𝑎𝑧 −9.8

but not sufficient

Gravity Downward

So how to get 3D orientation?

1) Gravity is exactly in my downward direction

2) North is exactly in my frontward direction

Rotation 𝑎𝑦 = 0

Matrix 𝑎𝑧 −9.8

3×3 𝑎𝑥 𝑚𝑥 0 0

Rotation 𝑎𝑦 𝑚𝑦 = 0 100

Matrix 𝑎𝑧 𝑚𝑧 −9.8 0

My orientation

North Frontward

So is Gravity + North enough to get 3D Orientation?

So is Gravity + North enough to get 3D Orientation?

Because any motion of the object will reflect

in the accelerometer … thereby

polluting the gravity estimate

So how to get 3D orientation? (Another idea)

Initial 𝑡

New

Orientation + න 𝐺𝑦𝑟𝑜. 𝑑𝑡 = Orientation

(at time t)

0

State of the art today: Sensor Fusion

Static Moving Static Moving Static Moving

Time

Rely mostly on Rely mostly on ……

gravity + North gyro integration

Getting back to our goal

Initial 𝑥𝑡

Location

+ 𝑦𝑡

𝑧𝑡

Accel. Location

Static?

Y 3D Accel.

IMU Mag. Orient. IMU ඵ

(Local) 𝑡

N Gyro. 3D (Global)

Orient.

Getting back to our goal

Initial 𝑥𝑡

Location

+ 𝑦𝑡

𝑧𝑡

Accel. Location

Static?

Y 3D Accel.

IMU Mag. Orient. IMU ඵ

(Local) 𝑡

N Gyro. 3D (Global)

Orient.

But what if object is not often static

What does MUSE do?

MUSE = Estimate 3D Orientation even for moving object

Time

• Use magnetometer as our main anchor

• Joint estimation of orientation and location

What does MUSE do?

MUSE = Estimate 3D Orientation even for moving object

Time

• Use magnetometer as our main anchor

• Joint estimation of orientation and location

Earth’s North Pole

From: Wikipedia

Earth’s North Pole Magnetic Field Direction

on Earth Surface

From: Wikipedia

Earth’s Magnetic Field as Main Anchor

Z: Up

X: East

Earth’s Magnetic Field as Main Anchor

Let’s make it our main anchor

North

Horizontal Plane

Earth’s Magnetic Field as Main Anchor

Rotation 𝑚𝑦 = 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑦

Matrix 𝑚𝑧 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑧

Main Anchor

Magnetic Field Direction

Earth’s Magnetic Field as Main Anchor

Rotation 𝑚𝑦 = 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑦

Matrix 𝑚𝑧 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑧

Three questions:

2) Magnetometer’s resolution is low …

3) How to know x, y, z of earth magnetic field?

Earth’s Magnetic Field as Main Anchor

Rotation 𝑚𝑦 = 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑦

Matrix 𝑚𝑧 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑧

Three questions:

2) Magnetometer’s resolution is low …

3) How to know x, y, z of earth magnetic field?

Actual vs. Inferred Measurement

[Local] [Local]

X: Right X: Right

𝒗𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝒗𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟

(from magnetometer) (inferred from orientation estimation)

Actual vs. Inferred Measurement

[Local] [Local]

X: Right X: Right

𝒗𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 and 𝒗𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟 are equal, if our orientation is estimated perfectly …

𝒗𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝒗𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟

(from magnetometer) (inferred from orientation estimation)

Actual vs. Inferred Measurement

Z: Outward Y: Front

[Local]

X: Right

𝒗𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝒗𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟

Actual vs. Inferred Measurement

Z: Outward Y: Front

∆𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

[Local]

X: Right

𝒗𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝒗𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟

Actual vs. Inferred Measurement

Z: Outward Y: Front

∆𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

[Local]

X: Right

𝒗𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝒗𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟

Actual vs. Inferred Measurement

Earth’s Magnetic Field as Main Anchor

Rotation 𝑚𝑦 = 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑦

Matrix 𝑚𝑧 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑧

Three questions:

2) Magnetometer’s resolution is low …

3) How to know x, y, z of earth magnetic field?

Earth’s Magnetic Field as Main Anchor

• Obtain GPS address and check the database is one option …

• A easier way is to utilize pause opportunities

𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑦 = Rotation 𝑚𝑦

𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ 𝑀𝑎𝑔.𝑧 Matrix 𝑚𝑧

Evaluation

Comparison Baselines

Ground Truth: Periodically bringing the phone to the same orientation, and excluding

those moments from calibration opportunities

Natural Activities

A Sample Trace

OK, we have 3D Orientation now… how to estimate location?

OK, we have 3D Orientation now… how to estimate location?

Initial Location 𝑥𝑡

Accel. Accel. + 𝑦𝑡

Gyro. 3D IMU ඵ 𝑧𝑡

IMU (Local) 𝑡

Mag. Orient. (Global)

OK, we have 3D Orientation now… how to estimate location?

Initial Location 𝑥𝑡

Accel. Accel. + 𝑦𝑡

Gyro. 3D IMU ඵ 𝑧𝑡

IMU (Local) 𝑡

Mag. Orient. (Global)

Localization impossible if

accelerometer has any noise … why?

Motion models can bound location error

Initial Location 𝑥𝑡

Accel. Accel. + 𝑦𝑡

Gyro. 3D IMU ඵ 𝑧𝑡

IMU (Local) 𝑡

Mag. Orient. (Global)

Motion models can bound location error

Initial Location 𝑥𝑡

Accel. Accel. + 𝑦𝑡

Gyro. 3D IMU ඵ 𝑧𝑡

IMU (Local) 𝑡

Mag. Orient. (Global)

MUSE uses this motion model to

jointly estimate both { orientation + location }

Initial Location 𝑥𝑡

Accel. Accel. + 𝑦𝑡

Gyro. 3D IMU ඵ 𝑧𝑡

IMU (Local) 𝑡

Mag. Orient. (Global)

MUSE uses this motion model (in a particle filter) to

jointly estimate both { orientation + location }

Initial Location 𝑥𝑡

Accel. Accel. + 𝑦𝑡

Gyro. 3D IMU ඵ 𝑧𝑡

IMU (Local) 𝑡

Mag. Orient. (Global)

OK, we have 3D Orientation now… how to estimate location?

Initial Location 𝑥𝑡

Accel. Accel. + 𝑦𝑡

Gyro. 3D IMU ඵ 𝑧𝑡

IMU (Local) 𝑡

Mag. Orient. (Global)

MUSE Localization Error

Fits motion

model the best

(cm)

Motion model breaks

Conclusion

Conventional Systems This paper

Use magnetometer as

Orientation

a new “gravity” sensor

Joint estimation of

orientation and location

Location

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