You are on page 1of 94

CUR R IC ULU

M DESIGN
APPROACHES TO
CURRICULUM
DESIGN
Subject Learner Problem
Centered Centered Centered

SUBJECT CHILD-CENTERED LIFE


DESIGN DESIGN
SITUATIONS

DISCIPLINE EXPERIENCE-
CENTERED DESIGN CORE DESIGN
DESIGN

BROAD FIELD ROMANTIC/ SOCIAL


DESIGN RADICAL DESIGN PROBLEM/
RECONSTRUCTI
CORRELATION HUMANISTIC ONIST DESIGN
DESIGN DESIGN

PROCESS
DESIGN
SUBJECT-
CENTERED
DESIGNS
SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN MODEL

• Henry Morrison and William Harris


• In this instance, schools divide the school
hours to different subjects such as
reading, grammar, literature,
mathematics, science, history and
geography
SUBJECT DESIGN

• oldest and so far the most familiar design


for teachers, parents and laymen.
Advantages Disadvantages
•Easy to deliver •Learning is
•Complimentary books are compartmentalized
written •Stresses so much the content
•Support instructional that it forgets the student’s
materials are commercially natural tendencies, interests
available and experiences
•Teachers are familiar with the
format
DISCIPLINE
DESIGN
DISCIPLINE DESIGN
• Often use in college, but not in elementary or secondary levels
• The discipline design engages the students so
they can analyze the curriculum and draw
conclusions. It helps students to master the
content area and in turn increase independent
learning.
• According to Bruner, the discipline design
clarifies the relationship between beginning
knowledge and advanced knowledge. This will
allow the students to gain meaning and advance
through the content.
3. BROAD FIELD DESIGN/
INTERDISCIPLINARY
BROAD FIELD DESIGN/
INTERDISCIPLINARY
• This design was made to
prevent the
compartmentalization of
subjects
• integrate the contents that
are related to each other
EXAMPLE
SOCIAL
STUDIES
GEOGRAPHY
POLITICAL SCIENCE
ECONOMICS
ANTHROPOLOGY

HISTORY
SOCIOLOGY
LANGUAGE
ARTS

LINGUISTICS LITERATURE

COMPOSITION
GRAMMAR

SPELLING
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• increases the width
of the students filed • the question of
knowledge quality?
• The issue of depth
• Allow them to apply
knowledge in an
integral
multidimensional way
4. CORRELATION DESIGN
CORRELATION DESIGN

• Comes from core, correlated


curriculum design that links separate
subject designs in order to reduce
fragmentation
• Subjects are related to one another
but each subject maintains its
identity.
EXAMPLE

BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY
CH
Y EM
IST
OG

BIOCHEMISTRY RY
OL
BI
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

• it fills in the gaps • requires teachers of


within curriculum of two different subjects
two subjects that are to work
related collaboratively

• (difficulty in meeting
time schedules and
has self contained
classes)
5. PROCESS DESIGN
PROCESS DESIGN
• Suggested that students be taught to
think
• Focus on students as “meaning maker”

• This design should address on


how learners learn and the
application of process to
subject matter
PROCESS DESIGN
• Focuses on role of teacher as
"facilitator".
• Concerned with guiding students to
engage in the

learning process and to develop


their capacity for learning.
• Emphasis on means rather than
ends.
PROCESS DESIGN
• Encourages learner autonomy.
• More individualized.

• Assumption that learners make unique


response to learning experiences
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Students learn the
process of knowledge
acquisition Not easy to apply
• Emphasis on approach in some
"learning skills“ (subject) areas.
• Enable students to
analyze reality and Difficult to assess
create frameworks by objectively.
an arranged derived
knowledge
• Allow to students to
investigate and reach
conclusion
ANALOGY
PRODUCT PROCESS
• The tutor says:
• The tutor says:
"You are all heading for
"You are all heading for
the same destination.
different destinations.
I've got the map.
You may need different
Stick close to me and I'll
maps.
get you there."
I'll teach you map-
reading skills."
APPROACHES TO
CURRICULUM
DESIGN
Subject Learner Problem
Centered Centered Centered

SUBJECT CHILD-CENTERED
DESIGN DESIGN

DISCIPLINE EXPERIENCE-
DESIGN CENTERED DESIGN

BROAD FIELD ROMANTIC/


DESIGN RADICAL DESIGN

CORRELATION HUMANISTIC
DESIGN DESIGN

PROCESS
DESIGN
LEARNER
-
CENTERE
D DESIGN
“Learner is
the center of
the educative
process”
LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN
This approach focused on meeting the
learning styles of students and not just on
the educators, administrators or even
problems.

• This focuses on grasping the interest


of the students and keeping their
attention when student’s interest is
kept in the lesson. (Dolence, 2003)
1.CHILD-CENTERED DESIGN

“Learning is the product o


Child’s interaction with the
environment.”
CHILD-CENTERED DESIGN
One learns by
doing
Anchored on Learner
the needs and engages with
interests of his/her
the child
Child- environment
centered
Design

LEARNING is the product of the child’s interaction with


the environment.
CHILD-CENTERED DESIGN
• John Locke- noted that individuals
construct bodies of knowledge from
their experiences

• IMMANUEL KANT – aspects of


knowledge result from cognitive
actions
PROPONENTS OF CHILD CENTERED DESIGN

-argued that children


attain self-realization
through social
participation.

- “LEARNING BY
PESTALLOZI FROEBEL DOING”
PROPONENTS OF CHILD CENTERED DESIGN

Rousseau
Parker – believed
– education
that children
does not requireshould
be taught within the
strict discipline but
context of their
rather it should be
natural
free environment
and not in an
artificial one
DEWEY
ROUSSEAU (classroom) PARKER
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Content not specific
• Students discover that
• It requires a longer time
learning is interesting
and fun. for students so it is
• Teachers have less difficult to achieve
traditional work to do curriculum targets.
• teachers and students • Specific nature of
work together to have a student demands, such
more interesting class as the nature likes to
• It can help to build social
work together.
skills and self-esteem
2. EXPERIENCE-CENTERED DESIGN

“Learning is a social activi


Experience-Centered Curriculum
Design

• CHILDREN’S NEEDS AND INTERESTS


CANNOT BE ANTICIPATED.
• Curriculum framework CANNOT be
PREPLANNED for all children
• Everything is “on the spot”
Experience-Centered Curriculum
Design

Curriculum
emphasize
LEARNER’S

self-
interests direction
creativity
TASK
TEACHER LEARNER
• To create a stimulating
• Essentially design their
learning environment
• in which students can
OWN LEARNING, they
explore CONSTRUCT AND REVISE
• come into direct contact their knowledge
with knowledge through:
• observe others’ learning • direct participation
and actions • Active observation
• To provide opportunities,
not to mandate certain
actions.
TASK
TEACHER LEARNER
• To create a stimulating
• Essentially design their
learning environment
• in which students can
OWN LEARNING, they
explore CONSTRUCT AND REVISE
• come into direct contact their knowledge
with knowledge through:
• observe others’ learning • direct participation
and actions • Active observation
• To provide opportunities,
not to mandate certain
actions.
The easy thing is to
seize upon something
in the nature of the
child, or upon
something in the
developed
consciousness of the
adult, insist upon that
as the key to the whole
problem.”
-Dewey, 1900
Dewey wanted EDUCATORS to:
• ANALYZE children’s experiences and see
how these experiences shaped children’s
knowledge.
• THINK of the child’s experience as fluid
and dynamic. Thus, the curriculum would
continually change to address students
needs
TEACHER who has design an experience-
centered curriculum has designed
potential experiences for students to
consider.

STUDENTS are empowered to shape their


own learning within the context furnished
by the teachers.
Who subscribe to experience-
centered curriculum design?
• Those who have faith in each
student’s uniqueness and ability.

• Those who believe that an open,


free school environment will
stimulate all students to excel.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Based on natural • dependent on



experiences of the needs and
children interest of the
student
• Students are • On the spot
empowered to • Teachers should
shape their be flexible on the
own learning demand of the
students
3. ROMANTIC/ RADICAL
DESIGN

“Learning is Reflective.”
ROMANTIC/RADICAL DESIGNS
• School curricular designs, school
curricula, and administration of
school programs are PLANNED
AND MANIPULATED to reflect and
address the desires of those in
POWER
ROMANTIC/RADICAL DESIGNS
• Students must learn ways of engaging in a
critique of knowledge
• It is deeply flawed
– Curricula address and economic inequality and
injustice
– View standard curricula as imperialistic and
oppressive
– Radical educators are overtly political
CURRICULUM is used to control
and indoctrinate students rather
than educate and emancipate

STUDENTS are manipulated to believe that


what they have and learn is good and just.
• he believed that education should
enlighten the masses about their
oppression, prompt them to feel
dissatisfied with their condition and
give them competencies necessary
for correcting the identified
inequalities.
• Emphasizes that
education’s goal is
emancipation of the
awareness,
competencies and
attitudes that
people need to take
control of their lives.
• Students must accept
ROBERT responsibility for educating
YOUNG themselves & demand
freedom

WILLIAM • Curriculum is an on going


engagement with the problem
AYERS determining what knowledge and
experiences are the most worthwhile

TEACHERS functions as “AWARENESS MAKERS”


Expose-Offer-Encourage-Stimulate
Challenge-Create awe-Wonder-Nurture
inquisitiveness
• Is characterized by
teacher and student’s
actions that break
barriers, challenge and
unpack preconceptions.

• Perceived as all materials offered and


implied and all the experiences planned
and unplanned that happened both inside
and outside of the school.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

• Emancipates the
• Threatens status
learner quo
• Curriculum is
manipulated
• It is political
4. HUMANISTIC DESIGN
Arthur Combs
Posed some questions:
• What kind of person achieves self-
realization?
• What goes into making such a person?

The emphasis was on EMPOWERING


individuals by actively involving them in
their own growth
HUMANISTIC DESIGN
 Development of self is the ultimate
objective of learning

 It considers the cognitive, affective and


psychomotor domain to be
interconnected

 It stresses the development of positive


self-concept and interpersonal skills
HUMANISTIC DESIGN
 Absorbed the notion of confluence
education

 James Moffett suggests that curriculum


emphasizes morality and spirituality

 This design should address pleasure and


desire such aesthetic pleasure
KEY LEAD PERSONALITIES

ABRAHAM MASLOW
KEY LEAD PERSONALITIES
Maslow’s Theory Rogers’ Theory

 A person who achieves  Believed that a person


the level of self can enhance self-
actualization is: directed learning by:
 Accepting of self, others  improving self
and nature understanding and
 Simple, spontaneous basic attitudes to guide
and natural behavior
 Problem oriented
 Open to different
experiences
Maslow’s Theory Rogers’ Theory

 Possesses empathy and  Believed that a person


sympathy towards the can enhance self-
less fortunate directed learning by:
 Sophisticated in  improving self
interpersonal relations understanding and
 Favoring democratic basic attitudes to guide
decision making behavior
 Possessing
philosophical sense of
humor
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Require teachers have
great skill and competence
• Promotes self in dealing with individuals
• Require teacher almost a
esteem complete change of
• Empowers mindset bec. They value
individuals the social, emotional and
• Holistic approach spiritual realms above the
intellectual realms
• Available educational
materials often are not
appropriate
CRITICISMS
• Fails to adequately consider the
consequences for learners
• Its emphasis on human uniqueness
conflicts with its emphasis on activities
that all students experience.
• It overemphasizes the individual,
ignoring society’s needs
• It does not incorporate insight from
behaviorism and cognitive
developmental theory
APPROACHES TO
CURRICULUM
DESIGN
Subject Learner Problem
Centered Centered Centered

SUBJECT CHILD-CENTERED LIFE


DESIGN DESIGN
SITUATIONS

DISCIPLINE EXPERIENCE-
CENTERED DESIGN CORE DESIGN
DESIGN

BROAD FIELD ROMANTIC/ SOCIAL


DESIGN RADICAL DESIGN PROBLEM/
RECONSTRUCTI
CORRELATION HUMANISTIC ONIST DESIGN
DESIGN DESIGN

PROCESS
DESIGN
PROBLEM
-
CENTERE
D DESIGN
PROBLEM-CENTERED DESIGN

Focuses on real life problems of


individuals and society
Intended to reinforce cultural
traditions and address unment
needs of the community and
society
Based on social issues
PROBLEM-CENTERED DESIGN

• It is planned before the students arrival (and


then adjusted based on student’s concern and
situations)
• Curricular organization depends in large part on
the nature of the problems to be studied
• Also address students needs, concerns and
abilities
• Dual emphasis on both content and learners
development
1. LIFE SITUATION DESIGN
LIFE
LifeSITUATION DESIGN
Situations Design
What makes this design unique?
 Contents are organized in
ways that allow students to
view problem areas clearly.

 It Uses The Learner’s


Past and Present Experiences
LIFE
LifeSITUATION DESIGN
Situations Design

 It encourages students to learn


and apply problem solving
procedures. By linking subject
matter to real situations increases
the curriculum’s relevance
Herbert Spencer
19th Century

His emphases were activities that:

 Sustain life
 Enhance Life
 Aid in rearing children
 Maintain the individual’s social
and political relations
 Enhance leisure, tasks, feelings
3 ASSUMPTIONS

1. Dealing with persistent life


situations is crucial to society’s
successful functioning and it
makes educational sense to
organize a curriculum around
them
3 ASSUMPTIONS

2. Students see the relevance of


content if it is organized around
aspects of community life
3 ASSUMPTIONS

3. Having students study social or


life situations will directly involve
them in improving society
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Does not expose
• Focus on problem
student adequately to
solving procedures
their cultural heritage
for learning
• Encourages students
• Contend teachers lack
to learn and apply
preparations and are
problem solving
uncomfortable with
procedures
this design bec, it
departs too much fr.
Their training
• Non traditional
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Presents subject • Critic contend that
matter in an
students do not
integrated from by
cutting across the learn much subject
separate subjects matter
and centering on • Perpetuates status
related categories of quo
social life
2. CORE DESIGN
CORE DESIGN
It centers on general education and
the problems are based on common
human activities.

The central focus of the core design


includes common needs, problems,
concerns, of the learners.
Faunce and Bossing presented ways on how
to proceed following a core design of a
curriculum as follows.
1. The problem is selected either the
teachers or a students.
2. A group consensus is made to identify
the important problems and interest of a
class.
3. Problem are selected on the basis of
develop criteria for selection.
4. The problem is clearly stated and
design.
5. Areas of study are decided, including
dividing a class by individual or group
interest
6. Needed information is needed and
discussed.
7. Resources for obtaining
information are listed and discussed.
8. Information is obtained and
organized.
9. Information is analyzed and
interpreted.
10. Tentative conclusion are stated and
tested.
11.A report is presented on the class
on an individual or a group basis.
12.Conclusion are evaluated.
13. new avenues of exploration
toward further problem solving
are examined.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

• Unifies content • Nontraditional


• Provides relevant • May have
subject matter repetition of
• Encourages active
topic but more in
processing of
information depth
• Fosters democratic
processes in the
classroom
3. PROBLEM/
RECONSTRUCTIONIST
DESIGN
PROBLEM/RECONSTRUCTIONIST DESIGN

• Foster social action aimed at


reconstructing society
• Promotes society’s social, political
and economic development
• They want curricula to advance
social justice
PROBLEM/RECONSTRUCTIONIST DESIGN

• PURPOSE:
– to engage students in critical
analysis of the local, national and
international community in order
to address humanity’s problems,
– Curriculum encourages industrial
and political changes
PROBLEM/RECONSTRUCTIONIST DESIGN

• GEORGE COUNT- curricula should involve


students creating more equitable society
• HAROLD RUGG- believe that schools should
engage children in critical analysis of society
in order to improve it.
• THEODORE BRAMELD- schools should help
students develop into social beings
dedicated to common good
APPROACHES TO
CURRICULUM
DESIGN
Subject Learner Problem
Centered Centered Centered
Curricular emphasis: separate subjects
Source: science, knowledge
SUBJECT CHILD-CENTERED
CHILD-CENTERED LIFE
DESIGN DESIGN
-scholarly disciplines (math, biology ) SITUATIONS

DISCIPLINE - science, knowledge


EXPERIENCE-
CORE DESIGN
- interdisciplinary subj., scholarly disciplines (math, biology )
DESIGN CENTERED DESIGN

BROAD FIELD -knowledge, society


ROMANTIC/ SOCIAL
DESIGN RADICAL DESIGN PROBLEM/
- Separate subjects, discipline linked butRECONSTRUCTI
their separate
CORRELATION identities HUMANISTIC
maintained ONIST DESIGN
DESIGN - knowledge,DESIGN
- Procedural knowledge of various disciplines; generic ways
PROCESS
DESIGN of information, processing, thinking
-
APPROACHES TO
CURRICULUM
DESIGN
Learner Problem
Centered Centered
Curricular emphasis: Child’s interest and needs
CHILD-CENTERED Source: child LIFE
DESIGN
SITUATIONS
Curricular emphasis: Child’s experiences and interest
EXPERIENCE-
CENTERED DESIGN Source: child
CORE DESIGN

ROMANTIC/ Curricular emphasis:


SOCIAL Child’s experiences and interest
RADICAL DESIGN PROBLEM/
Source: child, society
RECONSTRUCTI
HUMANISTIC ONIST DESIGN
Curricular emphasis: experiences, interests, needs of
DESIGN
person and group
Source: psychology, child, society
APPROACHES TO
CURRICULUM
DESIGN
Problem
Centered
Curricular emphasis: life(social) problems
LIFE Source: society
SITUATIONS

CORE DESIGN

SOCIAL Curricular emphasis: life(social) problems


PROBLEM/
RECONSTRUCTI
Source: society and its problems
ONIST DESIGN