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It is all about series compensation in facts

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(1)Variable impedance type series compensators.

(b) Thyristor-Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC)

(c) Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)

Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)

GTO Thyristor-Controlled Series

Capacitor (GCSC)

It consists of a fixed

capacitor in parallel with

a GTO thyristor (or

equivalent) valve (or

switch) that has the

capability to turn on and

off upon command.

turn-off delay angle control, and (c) attainable compensating

voltage waveform

• The objective of the GCSC scheme is to control

the ac voltage vc across the capacitor at a given

line current i. Evidently, when the GTO valve,

sw, is closed, the voltage across the capacitor is

zero, and when the valve is open, it is maximum.

For controlling the capacitor voltage, the closing

and opening of the valve is carried out in each

half-cycle in synchronism with the ac system

frequency.

appropriate control action) whenever the

capacitor voltage crosses zero. (Recall that the

thyristor valve of the TCR opens whenever the

current crosses zero.)

• When the valve sw is opened at the crest of the (constant)

line current (γ = 0), the resultant capacitor voltage vc will

be the same as that obtained in steady state with a

permanently open switch. When the opening of the valve is

delayed by the angle γ with respect to the crest of the line

current, the capacitor voltage can be expressed with a

defined line current, i(t) = I cos ωt, as follows:

1 t

vC (t ) i (t )dt

1

sin t sin

C C

The amplitude of fundamental capacitor voltage can be

expressed as a function of γ

I 2 1

VCF ( ) (1 sin 2 )

C

where γ is the amplitude of the line current, C is the capacitance

of the GTO thyristor controlled capacitor, and ω is the angular

frequency of the ac system.

Fundamental component of the series capacitor voltage vs. the

turn-off delay angle γ.

1 2 1

This impedance can be written as X C ( ) (1 sin 2 )

C

compensating voltage, VCF(γ), or the compensating reactance, XC(γ). In the

voltage compensation mode, the GCSC is to maintain the rated compensating

voltage in face of decreasing line current over a defined interval Imin<= I <=Imax

as illustrated in Figure (a1).

In this compensation mode the capacitive reactance XC, is selected so as to

produce the rated compensating voltage with I= Imin, i.e., VCmax = XC Imin. As

current Imin is increased toward Imax, the turn-off delay angle γ is increased to

reduce the duration of the capacitor injection and thereby maintain the

compensating voltage with increasing line current.

• In the impedance compensation mode, the GCSC

is to maintain the maximum rated compensating

reactance at any line current up to the rated

maximum. In this compensation mode the capacitive

impedance is chosen so as to provide the maximum

series compensation at rated current, XC = Vcmax/Imax,

that the GCSC can vary in the 0 <= XC(γ) <= XC

range by controlling the effective capacitor voltage

VCF(γ), i.e.,

XC(γ) = VCF(γ)/I.

Thyristor-Switched Series Capacitor

(TSSC)

• The operating principle: the degree of series compensation

is controlled in a step-like manner by increasing or

decreasing the number of series capacitors inserted. A

capacitor is inserted by turning off, and it is bypassed by

turning on the corresponding thyristor valve.

• A thyristor valve commutates "naturally," that is, it turns

off when the current crosses zero. Thus a capacitor can be

inserted into the line by the thyristor valve only at the

zero crossings of the line current.

• Since the insertion takes place at line current zero, a full half-cycle

of the line current will charge the capacitor from zero to

maximum and the successive, opposite polarity half-cycle of the line

current will discharge it from this maximum to zero.

• As can be seen, the capacitor insertion at line current zero,

necessitated by the switching limitation of the thyristor valve,

results in a dc offset voltage which is equal to the amplitude of the

ac capacitor voltage. In order to minimize the initial surge current

in the valve, and the corresponding circuit transient, the thyristor

valve should be turned on for bypass only when the capacitor

voltage is zero. With the prevailing dc offset, this requirement can

cause a delay of up to one full cycle, which would set the

theoretical limit for the attainable response time of the TSSC.

Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor

(TCSC)

It consists of the series compensating capacitor shunted by a TCR. In a practical

TCSC implementation, several such basic compensators may be connected in

series to obtain the desired voltage rating and operating characteristics. This

arrangement is similar in structure to the TSSC and, if the impedance of the

reactor, X1, is sufficiently smaller than that of the capacitor, XC, it can be operated

in an on/off manner like the TSSC.

• However, the basic idea behind the TCSC scheme is to provide

a continuously variable capacitor by means of partially

canceling the effective compensating capacitance by the

TCR.

X C X L ( )

X TCSC ( )

X L ( ) X C

X L ( ) X L

2 sin

Damping effects of TCSC

Applications of variable series

compensation -TCSC

• Enhancing transient stability

• Damping of power swings

• Sub-synchronous resonance damping

TCSC at a Substation

Static Synchronous Series Compensator

(SSSC)

The SSSC is one of the most recent FACTS devices for power transmission

series compensation. It can be considered as a synchronous voltage source as

it can inject an almost sinusoidal voltage of variable and controllable

amplitude and phase angle, in series with a transmission line. The injected

voltage is almost in quadrature with the line current. A small part of the

injected voltage that is in phase with the line current provides the losses in the

inverter.

Most of the injected voltage, which is in quadrature with the line current,

provides the effect of inserting an inductive or capacitive reactance in series

with the transmission line. The variable reactance influences the electric

power flow in the transmission line. The basic configuration of a SSSC is

shown in Fig.

SSSC (a)WITH OUT STORAGE and (b)WITH STORAGE

• A static synchronous Series Compensator operated

without an external energy source as Reactive Power

with output voltage is in quadrature with and fully

controllable independently of the transmission line

current for the purpose of increasing or decreasing the

overall reactive voltage drop across the transmission

line and thereby controlling the electric power flow.

or inductive injected voltage compensation, if SSSC-

AC injected voltage, (Vs), lags the line current IL by

90º, a capacitive series voltage compensation is

obtained in the transmission line and if leads IL by 90º,

an inductive series compensation is achieved.

Theory of the SSSC

line with an inductive transmission reactance, XL, connecting a

sending end voltage source, and a receiving end voltage source,

respectively.

• The expression of power flow is given by

Where Xeff is the effective total transmission

line reactance between its sending and Receiving

power system ends, including the equivalent

“variable reactance” inserted by the equivalent

injected voltage (Vs) (Buck or Boost) by the

SSSC-FACTS Compensator.

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